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Open AccessArticle

Surface Characteristics of Esthetic Nickel–Titanium and Beta-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)—Primary Results

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Division of Regenerative Orofacial Medicine, Research Group Biomaterials/Surfaces, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Orthodontics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 12200 Berlin, Germany
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Meotec GmbH & Co. KG, 52068 Aachen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091403
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Background/Aim: There is continuing interest in engineering esthetic labial archwires. The aim of this study was to coat nickel–titanium (NiTi) and beta-titanium (β-Ti), also known as titanium molybdenum (TMA), archwires by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and to analyze the characteristics of the PEO-surfaces. Materials and Methods: PEO-coatings were generated on 0.014-inch NiTi and 0.19 × 0.25-inch β-Ti archwires. The surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy. Cytocompatibility testing was performed with ceramized and untreated samples according to EN ISO 10993-5 in XTT-, BrdU- and LDH-assays. The direct cell impact was analyzed using LIVE-/DEAD-staining. In addition, the archwires were inserted in an orthodontic model and photographs were taken before and after insertion. Results: The PEO coatings were 15 to 20 µm thick with a whitish appearance. The cytocompatibility analysis revealed good cytocompatibility results for both ceramized NiTi and β-Ti archwires. In the direct cell tests, the ceramized samples showed improved compatibility as compared to those of uncoated samples. However, bending of the archwires resulted in loss of the PEO-surfaces. Nevertheless, it was possible to insert the β-Ti PEO-coated archwire in an orthodontic model without loss of the PEO-ceramic. Conclusion: PEO is a promising technique for the generation of esthetic orthodontic archwires. Since the PEO-coating does not resist bending, its clinical use seems to be limited so far to orthodontic techniques using straight or pre-bent archwires. View Full-Text
Keywords: esthetic archwires; coating stability; backscattered electron microscopy esthetic archwires; coating stability; backscattered electron microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, O.; Becker, J.-P.; Smeets, R.; Gosau, M.; Becker, G.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Jung, A.-K.; Heiland, M.; Kopp, A.; Barbeck, M.; Koehne, T. Surface Characteristics of Esthetic Nickel–Titanium and Beta-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)—Primary Results. Materials 2019, 12, 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091403

AMA Style

Jung O, Becker J-P, Smeets R, Gosau M, Becker G, Kahl-Nieke B, Jung A-K, Heiland M, Kopp A, Barbeck M, Koehne T. Surface Characteristics of Esthetic Nickel–Titanium and Beta-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)—Primary Results. Materials. 2019; 12(9):1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091403

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Ole; Becker, Jean-Philippe; Smeets, Ralf; Gosau, Martin; Becker, Germain; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Jung, Anne-Kathrin; Heiland, Max; Kopp, Alexander; Barbeck, Mike; Koehne, Till. 2019. "Surface Characteristics of Esthetic Nickel–Titanium and Beta-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)—Primary Results" Materials 12, no. 9: 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091403

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