Next Article in Journal
Improvements in Aggregate-Paste Interface by the Hydration of Steelmaking Waste in Concretes and Mortars
Next Article in Special Issue
Investigation on the Flame Retardant Properties and Fracture Toughness of DOPO and Nano-SiO2 Modified Epoxy Novolac Resin and Evaluation of Its Combinational Effects
Previous Article in Journal
Fully Biodegradable Composites: Thermal, Flammability, Moisture Absorption and Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Composites with Nano-Hydroxyapatite
Previous Article in Special Issue
Natural Keratin and Coconut Fibres from Industrial Wastes in Flame Retarded Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11

1
ENSAIT, GEMTEX—Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F-59000 Lille, France
2
IMT Mines d’Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d’Alès–Pôle Matériaux Polymères Avancés, 30100 Alès, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071146
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Flame Retardant Materials)
Flame retardancy of polymers is a recurring obligation for many applications. The development trend of biobased materials is no exception to this rule, and solutions of flame retardants from agro-resources give an advantage. Lignin is produced as a waste by-product from some industries, and can be used in the intumescent formation development as a source of carbon combined with an acid source. In this study, the flame retardancy of polyamide 11 (PA) is carried out by extrusion with a kraft lignin (KL) and ammonium polyphosphate (AP). The study of the optimal ratio between the KL and the AP makes it possible to optimize the fire properties as well as to reduce the cost and facilitates the implementation of the blend by a melting process. The properties of thermal decomposition and the fire reaction have been studied by thermogravimetric analyzes, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and vertical flame spread tests (UL94). KL permits a charring effect delaying thermal degradation and decreases by 66% the peak of heat release rate in comparison with raw PA. The fire reaction of the ternary blends is improved even if KL-AP association does not have a synergy effect. The 25/75 and 33/67 KL/AP ratios in PA give an intumescence behavior under flame exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; polyamide 11; ammonium polyphosphate; thermal decomposition; fire reaction lignin; polyamide 11; ammonium polyphosphate; thermal decomposition; fire reaction
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cayla, A.; Rault, F.; Giraud, S.; Salaün, F.; Sonnier, R.; Dumazert, L. Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11. Materials 2019, 12, 1146.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop