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Open AccessArticle

Natural Keratin and Coconut Fibres from Industrial Wastes in Flame Retarded Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites

1
Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), 12205 Berlin, Germany
2
CIATEC, A.C. Center of Applied Innovation in Competitive Technologies, Guanajuato 37545, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030344
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Flame Retardant Materials)
Natural keratin fibres derived from Mexican tannery waste and coconut fibres from coconut processing waste were used as fillers in commercially available, biodegradable thermoplastic starch-polyester blend to obtain sustainable biocomposites. The morphology, rheological and mechanical properties as well as pyrolysis, flammability and forced flaming combustion behaviour of those biocomposites were investigated. In order to open up new application areas for these kinds of biocomposites, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was added as a flame retardant. Extensive flammability and cone calorimeter studies revealed a good flame retardance effect with natural fibres alone and improved effectiveness with the addition of APP. In fact, it was shown that replacing 20 of 30 wt. % of APP with keratin fibres achieved the same effectiveness. In the case of coconut fibres, a synergistic effect led to an even lower heat release rate and total heat evolved due to reinforced char residue. This was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy of the char structure. All in all, these results constitute a good approach towards sustainable and biodegradable fibre reinforced biocomposites with improved flame retardant properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomaterials; biodegradable; calorimetry; composites; flame retardance biomaterials; biodegradable; calorimetry; composites; flame retardance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rabe, S.; Sanchez-Olivares, G.; Pérez-Chávez, R.; Schartel, B. Natural Keratin and Coconut Fibres from Industrial Wastes in Flame Retarded Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites. Materials 2019, 12, 344.

AMA Style

Rabe S, Sanchez-Olivares G, Pérez-Chávez R, Schartel B. Natural Keratin and Coconut Fibres from Industrial Wastes in Flame Retarded Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites. Materials. 2019; 12(3):344.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rabe, Sebastian; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Pérez-Chávez, Ricardo; Schartel, Bernhard. 2019. "Natural Keratin and Coconut Fibres from Industrial Wastes in Flame Retarded Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites" Materials 12, no. 3: 344.

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