Ti–Ni–Pd shape memory alloys are promising candidates for high-temperature actuators operating at above 373 K. One of the key issues in developing high-temperature shape memory alloys is the degradation of shape memory properties and dimensional stabilities because plastic deformation becomes more pronounced at higher working temperature ranges. In this study, the effect of the Ti:(Ni + Pd) atomic ratio in Tix
alloys with Ti content in the range from 49 at.% to 52 at.% on the martensitic transformation temperatures, microstructures and shape memory properties during thermal cycling under constant stresses were investigated. The martensitic transformation temperatures decreased with increasing or decreasing Ti content from the stoichiometric composition. In both Ti-rich and Ti-lean alloys, the transformation temperatures decreased during thermal cycling and the degree of decrease in the transformation temperatures became more pronounced as the composition of the alloy departed from the stoichiometric composition. Ti2
Pd and P phases were formed during thermal cycling in Ti-rich and Ti-lean alloys, respectively. Both Ti-rich and Ti-lean alloys exhibited superior dimensional stabilities and excellent shape memory properties with higher recovery ratio and larger work output during thermal cycling under constant stresses when compared with the alloys with near-stoichiometric composition.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.