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Functionalization and Surface Modifications of Bioactive Glasses (BGs): Tailoring of the Biological Response Working on the Outermost Surface Layer

1
Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran
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Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Azadi Sq., Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran
3
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14155-6447, Iran
4
Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223696
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ceramics and Glasses 2019)
Bioactive glasses (BGs) are routinely being used as potent materials for hard and soft tissue engineering applications; however, improving their biological activities through surface functionalization and modification has been underestimated so far. The surface characteristics of BGs are key factors in determining the success of any implanted BG-based material in vivo since they regulate the affinity and binding of different biological macromolecules and thereby the interactions between cells and the implant. Therefore, a number of strategies using chemical agents (e.g., glutaraldehyde, silanes) and physical methods (e.g., laser treatment) have been evaluated and applied to design properly, tailor, and improve the surface properties of BGs. All these approaches aim at enhancing the biological activities of BGs, including the induction of cell proliferation and subsequent osteogenesis, as well as the inhibition of bacterial growth and adhesion, thereby reducing infection. In this study, we present an overview of the currently used approaches of surface functionalization and modifications of BGs, along with discussing the biological outputs induced by these changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive glasses; surface modifications; functionalization; bioactivity; bone tissue engineering bioactive glasses; surface modifications; functionalization; bioactivity; bone tissue engineering
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Kargozar, S.; Kermani, F.; Mollazadeh Beidokhti, S.; Hamzehlou, S.; Verné, E.; Ferraris, S.; Baino, F. Functionalization and Surface Modifications of Bioactive Glasses (BGs): Tailoring of the Biological Response Working on the Outermost Surface Layer. Materials 2019, 12, 3696.

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