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Open AccessArticle

Autogenous Shrinkage, Microstructure, and Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Incorporating Carbon Nanofibers

1
Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
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Centre for Innovative Architecture and Built Environment (SErAMBI), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
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Angelo DelZotto School of Construction Management, George Brown College, 146 Kendal Avenue, M5T 2T9 Toronto, Canada
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, M5B 2K3 Toronto, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020320
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
The mix design of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is complicated by the presence of many “ingredients.” The fundamental packing density allows a simpler mix design with fewer ingredients to achieve optimum packing density and dense microstructure. The optimum particle grading increases the flowability of UHPC and eliminates entrapped air. This study presents a simplified particle grading design approach that positively influences the strength, autogenous shrinkage, and microstructure characteristics of UHPC. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) of superior mechanical properties were added to enhance the strength of UHPC and to reduce its autogenous shrinkage. In addition, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a cement replacement material to reduce the amount of cement in UHPC mixes. Test results showed that the presence of homogeneously dispersed CNF increased the compressive strength and compensated the autogenous shrinkage of UHPC. The findings indicated that an ideal particle distribution, which is close to the modified Andreasen and Andersen grading model, contributed to achieving high compressive strength and CNFs were capable of providing nano-bridges to compensate the shrinkage caused by GGBS. View Full-Text
Keywords: autogenous shrinkage; carbon nanofibers (CNFs); compressive strength; entrapped air; flowability; microstructure; nanostructure; particle grading; ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) autogenous shrinkage; carbon nanofibers (CNFs); compressive strength; entrapped air; flowability; microstructure; nanostructure; particle grading; ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, J.L.G.; Raman, S.N.; Safiuddin, M.; Zain, M.F.M.; Hamid, R. Autogenous Shrinkage, Microstructure, and Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Incorporating Carbon Nanofibers. Materials 2019, 12, 320.

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