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Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness and Compatibility of a Novel Sustainable Method for Stone Consolidation Based on Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Calcium-Based Nanomaterials

1
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
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Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 30172 Mestre Venice, Italy
3
Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, 06125 Perugia, Italy
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Institute of Art and Technology, Conservation Sciences, University of Applied Arts Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(18), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12183025
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reinforcement and Repair Materials for Masonry Structures)
External surfaces of stones used in historic buildings often carry high artistic value and need to be preserved from the damages of time, especially from the detrimental effects of the weathering. This study aimed to test the effectiveness and compatibility of some new environmentally-friendly materials for stone consolidation, as the use thereof has been so far poorly investigated. The treatments were based on combinations of an aqueous solution of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and two calcium-based nanomaterials, namely a commercial nanosuspension of Ca(OH)2 and a novel nanosuspension of calcite. The treatments were applied to samples of two porous stones: a limestone and a sandstone. The effectiveness of the treatments was assessed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultrasound pulse velocity test, colour measurements, and capillary water absorption test. The results suggest that the combined use of DAP and Ca-based nanosuspensions can be advantageous over other commonly used consolidants in terms of retreatability and physical-chemical compatibility with the stone. Some limitations are also highlighted, such as the uneven distribution and low penetration of the consolidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: consolidation; nanomaterials; calcium carbonate; hydroxyapatite; limestone; sandstone; cultural heritage; scanning electron microscopy consolidation; nanomaterials; calcium carbonate; hydroxyapatite; limestone; sandstone; cultural heritage; scanning electron microscopy
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Pesce, C.; Moretto, L.M.; Orsega, E.F.; Pesce, G.L.; Corradi, M.; Weber, J. Effectiveness and Compatibility of a Novel Sustainable Method for Stone Consolidation Based on Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Calcium-Based Nanomaterials. Materials 2019, 12, 3025.

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