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Open AccessArticle

In-Situ High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Microtomographic Imaging of Olive Oil Removal in Kitchen Sponges by Squeezing and Rinsing

Radiation Physics Research Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86/N12, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Centre for X-ray Tomography, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86/N12, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Procter and Gamble Corporate Functions, Surface Imaging and Microscopy Department, Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040, USA
The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels Innovation Center, 1853 Strombeek Bever Temselaan 100, Bever, Belgium
The Procter and Gamble Company, Newcastle Innovation Center, Whitley Road, Longbenton, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne NE12 9TS, UK
Pore-Scale Processes in Geomaterials Research Group (PProGRess), Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1482;
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In-Situ X-Ray Tomographic Study of Materials)
Recent advances in high resolution X-ray tomography (μCT) technology have enabled in-situ dynamic μCT imaging (4D-μCT) of time-dependent processes inside 3D structures, non-destructively and non-invasively. This paper illustrates the application of 4D-μCT for visualizing the removal of fatty liquids from kitchen sponges made of polyurethane after rinsing (absorption), squeezing (desorption) and cleaning (adding detergents). For the first time, time-dependent imaging of this type of system was established with sufficiently large contrast gradient between water (with/without detergent) and olive oil (model fat) by the application of suitable fat-sensitive X-ray contrast agents. Thus, contrasted olive oil filled sponges were rinsed and squeezed in a unique laboratory loading device with a fluid flow channel designed to fit inside a rotating gantry-based X-ray μCT system. Results suggest the use of brominated vegetable oil as a preferred contrast agent over magnetite powder for enhancing the attenuation coefficient of olive oil in a multi fluid filled kitchen sponge. The contrast agent (brominated vegetable oil) and olive oil were mixed and subsequently added on to the sponge. There was no disintegration seen in the mixture of contrast agent and olive oil during the cleaning process by detergents. The application of contrast agents also helped in accurately tracking the movement and volume changes of soils in compressed open cell structures. With the in house-built cleaning device, it was quantified that almost 99% of cleaning was possible for contrasted olive oil (brominated vegetable oil with olive oil) dispersed in the sponge. This novel approach allowed for realistic mimicking of the cleaning process and provided closer evaluation of the effectiveness of cleaning by detergents to minimize bacterial growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray μCT; in-situ experiments; flow cell X-ray μCT; in-situ experiments; flow cell
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Shastry, A.; Palacio-Mancheno, P.E.; Braeckman, K.; Vanheule, S.; Josipovic, I.; Van Assche, F.; Robles, E.; Cnudde, V.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Boone, M.N. In-Situ High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Microtomographic Imaging of Olive Oil Removal in Kitchen Sponges by Squeezing and Rinsing. Materials 2018, 11, 1482.

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