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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis of Gold Functionalised Nanoparticles with the Eranthis hyemalis Lectin and Preliminary Toxicological Studies on Caenorhabditis elegans

1
BIOSCOPE Group, [email protected], Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, University NOVA of Lisbon, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
PROTEOMASS Scientific Society, Rua dos Inventores, Madam Parque, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
3
Biomolecular Research Group, School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury CT1 1QU, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors have contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081363
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Materials for Translational Research)
The lectin found in the tubers of the Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) plant (EHL) is a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP). Type II RIPs have shown anti-cancer properties and have great potential as therapeutic agents. Similarly, colloidal gold nanoparticles are successfully used in biomedical applications as they can be functionalised with ligands with high affinity and specificity for target cells to create therapeutic and imaging agents. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles conjugated with EHL and the results of a set of initial assays to establish whether the biological effect of EHL is altered by the conjugation. Gold nanoparticles functionalised with EHL ([email protected]) were successfully synthesised by bioconjugation with citrate gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The conjugates were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential analysis, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that an optimal functionalisation was achieved with the addition of 100 µL of EHL (concentration 1090 ± 40 µg/mL) over 5 mL of AuNPs (concentration [Au0] = 0.8 mM). Biological assays on the effect of [email protected] were undertaken on Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode commonly used for toxicological studies, that has previously been shown to be strongly affected by EHL. Citrate gold nanoparticles did not have any obvious effect on the nematodes. For first larval stage (L1) nematodes, [email protected] showed a lower biological effect than EHL. For L4 stage, pre-adult nematodes, both EHL alone and [email protected] delayed the onset of reproduction and reduced fecundity. These assays indicate that EHL can be conjugated to gold nanoparticles and retain elements of biocidal activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; toxicity; gold nanoparticles; nanocomposites; lectin protein; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Caenorhabditis elegans; toxicity; gold nanoparticles; nanocomposites; lectin protein; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djafari, J.; McConnell, M.T.; Santos, H.M.; Capelo, J.L.; Bertolo, E.; Harvey, S.C.; Lodeiro, C.; Fernández-Lodeiro, J. Synthesis of Gold Functionalised Nanoparticles with the Eranthis hyemalis Lectin and Preliminary Toxicological Studies on Caenorhabditis elegans. Materials 2018, 11, 1363.

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