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Open AccessArticle

Semi-Continuous Reverse Membrane Bioreactor in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Citrus Waste

1
Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Swedish Center for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
3
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081341
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
The presence of an antimicrobial compound called D-Limonene in citrus waste inhibits methane production from such waste in anaerobic digestion. In this work, a two-stage anaerobic digestion method is developed using reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBRs) containing cells encased in hydrophilic membranes. The purpose of encasement is to retain a high cell concentration inside the bioreactor. The effectiveness of rMBRs in reducing cell washout is evaluated. Three different system configurations, comprising rMBRs, freely suspended cells (FCs), and a combination of both (abbreviated to rMBR–FCs), are incubated at three different organic loading rates (OLRs) each, namely 0.6, 1.2, and 3.6 g COD/(L cycle). Incubation lasts for eight feeding cycles at 55 °C. Methane yield and biogas composition results show that rMBRs perform better than rMBR–FCs and FCs at all three OLRs. Volatile fatty acid profiles and H2 production show that the reactors are working properly and no upset occurs. Additionally, a short digestion time of 4 days can be achieved using the rMBR configuration in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biogas; membrane bioreactor; semi-continuous; citrus waste; two-stage anaerobic digestion; biogas; membrane bioreactor; semi-continuous; citrus waste; two-stage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kurniawan, T.; Lukitawesa; Hanifah, I.; Wikandari, R.; Millati, R.; Taherzadeh, M.J.; Niklasson, C. Semi-Continuous Reverse Membrane Bioreactor in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Citrus Waste. Materials 2018, 11, 1341.

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