Scientific and engineering progress associated with increased interest in healthcare monitoring, therapy, and human-machine interfaces has rapidly accelerated the development of bio-integrated multifunctional devices. Recently, compensation for the cons of existing materials on electronics for health care systems has been provided by carbon-based nanomaterials. Due to their excellent mechanical and electrical properties, these materials provide benefits such as improved flexibility and stretchability for conformal integration with the soft, curvilinear surfaces of human tissues or organs, while maintaining their own unique functions. This review summarizes the most recent advanced biomedical devices and technologies based on two most popular carbon based materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. In the beginning, we discuss the biocompatibility of CNTs and graphene by examining their cytotoxicity and/or detrimental effects on the human body for application to bioelectronics. Then, we scrutinize the various types of flexible and/or stretchable substrates that are integrated with CNTs and graphene for the construction of high-quality active electrode arrays and sensors. The convergence of these carbon-based materials and bioelectronics ensures scalability and cooperativity in various fields. Finally, future works with challenges are presented in bio-integrated electronic applications with these carbon-based materials.
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