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Composite Based on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (HA/β-TCP) and Nanocellulose from the Açaí Tegument

Post-Graduation in Natural Resources Engineering of the Amazon—PRODERNA, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará—IFPA, Campus Belém, Pará 66093-020, Brazil
Post-Graduation in Mechanical Engineering—PPGEM, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2213;
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
PDF [5326 KB, uploaded 8 November 2018]


The use of lignocellulosic remnants of the açaí agro-business will benefit the environment with a precursor material for biomedical applications. Nanocellulose (NC) allows the biomimetic growth of biphasic ceramics on its surface, with characteristics compatible with bone tissue, including bioactive properties and biocompatibility. In this study, the composites were obtained from açaí tegument (Euterpe Oleracea Mart.) NC using acid hydrolysis. The characterization performed by scanning electron microscopy showed the characteristic crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium triphosphate (β-TCP) based on the results of X-ray diffraction, with the peak at 22°, showing the NC nucleation of HA and peak at 17° showing tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of O-H at 3400 cm−1 and C-H at 2900 cm−1, which is characteristic of cellulose; peaks were also observed at 1609 cm−1, verifying the reduction in lignin content. Groups PO4−3 at approximately 1070 cm−1, P-OH at 910–1040 cm−1, and HCO3 at 2450 cm−1 confirmed the formation of HA and β-TCP. The zeta potential had a range of −11 ± 23.8 mV related to particle size, which had a range of 164.2 × 10−9–4748 × 10−9 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; calcium triphosphate; lignocellulosics; nanocomposite hydroxyapatite; calcium triphosphate; lignocellulosics; nanocomposite

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Valentim, R.M.B.; Andrade, S.M.C.; Dos Santos, M.E.M.; Santos, A.C.; Pereira, V.S.; Dos Santos, I.P.; Dias, C.G.B.T.; Dos Reis, M.A.L. Composite Based on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (HA/β-TCP) and Nanocellulose from the Açaí Tegument. Materials 2018, 11, 2213.

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