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An Introduction to 3D Bioprinting: Possibilities, Challenges and Future Aspects

1
Department of Anatomy Histology, Embryology, Pathology Anatomy and Pathology Histology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Botiss Biomaterials, Hauptstraße 28, 15806 Zossen, Germany
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, German-Jordanian University, 11180 Amman, Jordan
4
Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Martin-Luther-Universität, Halle-Wittenberg and Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Anhalt University of Applied Science, 06366 Köthen, Germany
5
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Regenerative Orofacial Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
7
Department of Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
8
BerlinAnalytix GmbH, 12109 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112199
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract

Bioprinting is an emerging field in regenerative medicine. Producing cell-laden, three-dimensional structures to mimic bodily tissues has an important role not only in tissue engineering, but also in drug delivery and cancer studies. Bioprinting can provide patient-specific spatial geometry, controlled microstructures and the positioning of different cell types for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. In this brief review, the different fabrication techniques: laser-based, extrusion-based and inkjet-based bioprinting, are defined, elaborated and compared. Advantages and challenges of each technique are addressed as well as the current research status of each technique towards various tissue types. Nozzle-based techniques, like inkjet and extrusion printing, and laser-based techniques, like stereolithography and laser-assisted bioprinting, are all capable of producing successful bioprinted scaffolds. These four techniques were found to have diverse effects on cell viability, resolution and print fidelity. Additionally, the choice of materials and their concentrations were also found to impact the printing characteristics. Each technique has demonstrated individual advantages and disadvantages with more recent research conduct involving multiple techniques to combine the advantages of each technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D scaffolds; inkjet; extrusion; stereolithography; laser-assisted; rapid prototyping additive manufacturing; 3D scaffolds; inkjet; extrusion; stereolithography; laser-assisted; rapid prototyping
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kačarević, Ž.P.; Rider, P.M.; Alkildani, S.; Retnasingh, S.; Smeets, R.; Jung, O.; Ivanišević, Z.; Barbeck, M. An Introduction to 3D Bioprinting: Possibilities, Challenges and Future Aspects. Materials 2018, 11, 2199.

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