Next Article in Journal
Statistical Mechanics Treatment of the Broadened Snoek Relaxation Peak in Ternary Niobium–Vanadium–Oxygen Alloys
Next Article in Special Issue
Polyether Sulfone-Based Epoxy Toughening: From Micro- to Nano-Phase Separation via PES End-Chain Modification and Process Engineering
Previous Article in Journal
Boosted Visible-Light Photodegradation of Methylene Blue by V and Co Co-Doped TiO2
Previous Article in Special Issue
Temperature Dependence of Mechanical, Electrical Properties and Crystal Structure of Polyethylene Blends for Cable Insulation
Article

3D Printing of PLA/clay Nanocomposites: Influence of Printing Temperature on Printed Samples Properties

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II n. 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101947
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization 2018)
In this study, the possibility of using a layered silicate-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in additive manufacturing applications was investigated. In particular, the aim of this work was to study the influence of printing temperature in the 3D printing process of PLA/clay nanocomposites. For this reason, two PLA grades (4032D and 2003D, D-isomer content 1.5 and 4, respectively) were melt-compounded by a twin screw extruder with a layered silicate (Cloisite 30B) at 4 wt %. Then, PLA and PLA/clay feedstock filaments (diameter 1.75 mm) were produced using a single screw extruder. Dog-bone and prismatic specimens were 3D printed using the FDM technique at three different temperatures, which were progressively increased from melting temperature (185–200–215 °C for PLA 4032D and 165–180–195 °C for PLA 2003D). PLA and PLA/clay specimens were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. Moreover, the morphology of the 3D printed specimens was investigated using optical microscopy and contact angle measurements. The different polymer matrix and the resulting nanocomposite morphology strongly influenced 3D printed specimen properties. DMA on PLA/clay filaments reported an increase in storage modulus both at ambient temperature and above the glass transition temperature in comparison to neat PLA filaments. Furthermore, the presence of nanoclay increased thermal stability, as demonstrated by TGA, and acted as a nucleating agent, as observed from the DSC measurements. Finally, for 3D printed samples, when increasing printing temperature, a different behavior was observed for the two PLA grades and their nanocomposites. In particular, 3D printed nanocomposite samples exhibited higher elastic modulus than neat PLA specimens, but for PLA 4032D+C30B, elastic modulus increased at increasing printing temperature while for PLA 2003D+C30B slightly decreased. Such different behavior can be explained considering the different polymer macromolecular structure and the different nanocomposite morphology (exfoliated in PLA 4032D matrix and intercalated in PLA 2003D matrix). View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; FDM; nanocomposites; PLA; clay 3D printing; FDM; nanocomposites; PLA; clay
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Coppola, B.; Cappetti, N.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. 3D Printing of PLA/clay Nanocomposites: Influence of Printing Temperature on Printed Samples Properties. Materials 2018, 11, 1947. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101947

AMA Style

Coppola B, Cappetti N, Di Maio L, Scarfato P, Incarnato L. 3D Printing of PLA/clay Nanocomposites: Influence of Printing Temperature on Printed Samples Properties. Materials. 2018; 11(10):1947. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101947

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coppola, Bartolomeo, Nicola Cappetti, Luciano Di Maio, Paola Scarfato, and Loredana Incarnato. 2018. "3D Printing of PLA/clay Nanocomposites: Influence of Printing Temperature on Printed Samples Properties" Materials 11, no. 10: 1947. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101947

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop