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Effects of Physical and Chemical States of Iron-Based Catalysts on Formation of Carbon-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010139
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
Effects of physical and chemical states of iron-based catalysts on the formation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) synthesized thermally from kraft lignin were investigated. Experimental results indicated that if solution-based iron nitrate (FeN) was used as an iron source for the catalyst, CEINs observed were α-Fe and γ-Fe-based cores encapsulated by few layers graphitic-carbon (mostly 1–5 layers) and the majority of these CEINs were embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The formation of graphitic-carbon shells is believed based on the dissolution and precipitation mechanism of amorphous carbon acting as the carbon source. If solid-based iron nanoparticles (FePs) were used as the catalyst, CEINs observed were α-Fe, γ-Fe, and Fe3C-based cores encapsulated with tangled graphitic-carbon nanoribbons and carbon tubules and the majority of these CEINs were found along the edge of amorphous carbon matrix. The growth of tangled graphitic-carbon nanoribbons and carbon tubules is based on a chemical vapor decomposition process, i.e., the carbonaceous gases from kraft lignin decomposition served as the carbon source. View Full-Text
Keywords: kraft lignin; biopolymer; iron nanoparticles; iron nitrate; thermal treatment; carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles kraft lignin; biopolymer; iron nanoparticles; iron nitrate; thermal treatment; carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Yan, Q.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Cai, Z. Effects of Physical and Chemical States of Iron-Based Catalysts on Formation of Carbon-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin. Materials 2018, 11, 139.

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