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Open AccessArticle

Wet-Chemical Synthesis of 3D Stacked Thin Film Metal-Oxides for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries

1
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium
2
Imec vzw, Division Imomec, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
3
Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, 9000 Gent, Belgium
4
Energy Materials & Devices, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
5
Forschungszentrum Jülich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 Jülich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10091072
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science)
By ultrasonic spray deposition of precursors, conformal deposition on 3D surfaces of tungsten oxide (WO3) negative electrode and amorphous lithium lanthanum titanium oxide (LLT) solid-electrolyte has been achieved as well as an all-solid-state half-cell. Electrochemical activity was achieved of the WO3 layers, annealed at temperatures of 500 °C. Galvanostatic measurements show a volumetric capacity (415 mAh·cm−3) of the deposited electrode material. In addition, electrochemical activity was shown for half-cells, created by coating WO3 with LLT as the solid-state electrolyte. The electron blocking properties of the LLT solid-electrolyte was shown by ferrocene reduction. 3D depositions were done on various micro-sized Si template structures, showing fully covering coatings of both WO3 and LLT. Finally, the thermal budget required for WO3 layer deposition was minimized, which enabled attaining active WO3 on 3D TiN/Si micro-cylinders. A 2.6-fold capacity increase for the 3D-structured WO3 was shown, with the same current density per coated area. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasonic spray deposition; tungsten oxide; lithium lanthanum titanium oxide; conformal coating; Li-ion batteries ultrasonic spray deposition; tungsten oxide; lithium lanthanum titanium oxide; conformal coating; Li-ion batteries
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Van den Ham, E.J.; Maino, G.; Bonneux, G.; Marchal, W.; Elen, K.; Gielis, S.; Mattelaer, F.; Detavernier, C.; Notten, P.H.L.; Van Bael, M.K.; Hardy, A. Wet-Chemical Synthesis of 3D Stacked Thin Film Metal-Oxides for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries. Materials 2017, 10, 1072.

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