The microstructural evolution and underlying mechanism of a new high strength, high toughness near β titanium alloy, β20C, during hot deformation, and heat treatment were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. It was found that dynamic recovery occurs mainly in β phase, while α phase undergoes both a dynamic recovery and continuous incomplete dynamic recrystallization with a fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (≥15°) of 21.1% under hot-rolling. Subsequently, α phase undergoes static recrystallization with an increasing fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (21.1%→60.7%) under annealing, while the grains are equiaxed with refined grain sizes of 1.63 µm observed from the rolling direction (RD) and 1.66 µm observed from the transverse direction (TD). Moreover, the average aspect ratio of the lamellar α phase was 2.44 observed from the RD and 3.12 observed from the TD after hot rolling, but decreased to 2.20 observed from the RD, and 2.53 observed from the TD after annealing. Furthermore, the strict Burgers’ relationship between α and β phases changed after hot-rolling and remains the distortion, even after the static recrystallization process of α phase during annealing.
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