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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

Department of Electronic Engineering, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
Department of Convergence Software, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2017, 10(8), 880;
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2017)
We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxide semiconductor; sol-gel precursor; solution process; doping; transistor oxide semiconductor; sol-gel precursor; solution process; doping; transistor
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Zhang, X.; Lee, H.; Kwon, J.-H.; Kim, E.-J.; Park, J. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors. Materials 2017, 10, 880.

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