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SEM-EDX Study of the Degradation Process of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures: Material Characterization and In Vivo Behavior

Cátedra Internacional de Investigación en Odontología, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Avda. Jerónimos, 135, 30107 Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain
Departamento de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnologia Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Avda. Universidad s/n, 03202-Elche, Alicante, Spain
Biotecnos Research Center, Rua Dr. Bonazo n° 57, 97015-001-Santa Maria (RS), Brazil
Instituto de Bioingenieria, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. Ferrocarril s/n. 03202-Elche, Alicante, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz E. Weber
Materials 2017, 10(6), 623;
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in sinus lift procedures. It compares how the physico-chemical properties influence the material’s performance in vivo by a histomorphometric study in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation in 10 clinical cases. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the typical structure of hydroxyapatite (HA) for both materials. Both xenografts were porous and exhibited intraparticle pores. Strong differences were observed in terms of porosity, crystallinity, and calcium/phosphate. Histomorphometric measurements on the bone biopsies showed statistically significant differences. The physic-chemical assessment of both xenografts, made in accordance with the protocol developed on an industrial scale, confirmed that these products present excellent biocompatibilitity, with similar characteristics to natural bone. The sintered HA xenografts exhibited greater osteoconductivity, but were not completely resorbable (30.80 ± 0.88% residual material). The non-sintered HA xenografts induced about 25.92 ± 1.61% of new bone and a high level of degradation after six months of implantation. Differences in the physico-chemical characteristics found between the two HA xenografts determined a different behavior for this material. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; xenografts; physic-chemical-characterization; tissue reaction hydroxyapatite; xenografts; physic-chemical-characterization; tissue reaction
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Ramírez Fernández, M.P.; Mazón, P.; Gehrke, S.A.; Calvo-Guirado, J.L.; De Aza, P.N. Comparison of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures: Material Characterization and In Vivo Behavior. Materials 2017, 10, 623.

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