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SEM-EDX Study of the Degradation Process of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures

Catedra Internacional de Investigación en Odontología, University Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Avda. Jerónimos, 135, 30107 Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain
Biotecnos Research Center, Rua Dr. Bonazo n° 57, 97015-001 Santa Maria (RS), Brazil
Instituto de Bioingenieria, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda, Ferrocarril s/n, 03202-Elche Alicante, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohan Jacob
Materials 2017, 10(5), 542;
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
PDF [10073 KB, uploaded 17 May 2017]


Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process of material performance in bone biopsies retrieved six months after maxillary sinus augmentation. Residual biomaterial particles were examined by field scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the composition and degree of degradation of the bone graft substitute material. According to the EDX analysis, the Ca/P ratio significantly lowered in the residual biomaterial (1.08 ± 0.32) compared to the initial composition (2.22 ± 0.08) for the low-temperature sintered group, which also presented high porosity, low crystallinity, low density, a large surface area, poor stability, and a high resorption rate compared to the high-temperature sintered material. This demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of bone substitute material clearly influence the degradation process. Further studies are needed to determine whether the resorption of deproteinized bone particles proceeds slowly enough to allow sufficient time for bone maturation to occur. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; xenografts; tissue reaction; resorption; biocompatibility; biomedical applications hydroxyapatite; xenografts; tissue reaction; resorption; biocompatibility; biomedical applications

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Ramírez Fernández, M.P.; Gehrke, S.A.; Pérez Albacete Martinez, C.; Calvo Guirado, J.L.; De Aza, P.N. SEM-EDX Study of the Degradation Process of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures. Materials 2017, 10, 542.

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