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Tracing the Bioavailability of Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam in Biological Tissues

College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Blvd, Melbourne, FL 3290, USA
Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad 3800, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barbara Zavan
Materials 2017, 10(4), 336;
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
Graphene-based materials with a three-dimensional (3D) framework have been investigated for a variety of biomedical applications because of their 3D morphology, excellent physiochemical properties, volume stability, and their controllable degradation rate. Current knowledge on the toxicological implications and bioavailability of graphene foam (GF) has major uncertainties surrounding the fate and behavior of GF in exposed environments. Bioavailability, uptake, and partitioning could have potential effects on the behavior of GF in living organisms, which has not yet been investigated. Here, we report a pilot toxicology study on 3D GF in common carps. Our results showed that GF did not show any noticeable toxicity in common carps, and the antioxidant enzymatic activities, biochemical and blood parameters persisted within the standard series. Further histological imaging revealed that GF remained within liver and kidney macrophages for 7 days without showing obvious toxicity. An in vivo study also demonstrated a direct interaction between GF and biological systems, verifying its eco-friendly nature and high biocompatibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene foam; bioavailability; biological tissues; fish graphene foam; bioavailability; biological tissues; fish
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Tabish, T.A.; Chabi, S.; Ali, M.; Xia, Y.; Jabeen, F.; Zhang, S. Tracing the Bioavailability of Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam in Biological Tissues. Materials 2017, 10, 336.

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