Anisotropic assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted extensive attention because of the potential applications in materials science, biology, and medicine. However, assembly control (e.g., the number of assembled NPs) has not been adequately studied. Here, the growth of anisotropic gold NP assemblies on a liposome surface is reported. Citrate-coated gold NPs adsorbed on liposome surfaces were assembled in one dimension at temperatures above the phase transition temperature of the lipid bilayer. Growth of the anisotropic assemblies depended on the heating time. Absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the gradual growth was attributed to liposome fusion, which was strongly affected by the size of the gold NPs. This method enabled us to precisely control the number of NPs in each anisotropic assembly. These results will enable the fabrication of functional materials based on NP assemblies and enable investigations of cell functions and disease causality.
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