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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Experimental Exploration of Metal Cable as Reinforcement in 3D Printed Concrete

Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Witteveen+Bos, P.O. Box 233, 7400 AE Deventer, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1314;
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques. This study, however, explores an alternative strategy, namely to directly entrain a metal cable in the concrete filament during printing to serve as reinforcement. A device is introduced to apply the reinforcement. Several options for online reinforcement media are compared for printability. Considerations specific to the manufacturing process are discussed. Subsequently, pull-out tests on cast and printed specimens provide an initial characterisation of bond behaviour. Bending tests furthermore show the potential of this reinforcement method. The bond stress of cables in printed concrete was comparable to values reported for smooth rebar but lower than that of the same cables in cast concrete. The scatter in experimental results was high. When sufficient bond length is available, ductile failure behaviour for tension parallel to the filament direction can be achieved, even though cable slip occurs. Further improvements to the process should pave the way to achieve better post-crack resistance, as the concept in itself is feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D concrete printing; reinforcement; entrainment; cable; chain 3D concrete printing; reinforcement; entrainment; cable; chain
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Bos, F.P.; Ahmed, Z.Y.; Jutinov, E.R.; Salet, T.A.M. Experimental Exploration of Metal Cable as Reinforcement in 3D Printed Concrete. Materials 2017, 10, 1314.

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