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Materials 2017, 10(1), 33;

Physico-Chemical, In Vitro, and In Vivo Evaluation of a 3D Unidirectional Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enrico Bernardo
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 25 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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The unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite HAp (UDPHAp) is a scaffold with continuous communicated pore structure in the axial direction. We evaluated and compared the ability of the UDPHAp as a three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue engineering scaffold to the interconnected calcium porous HAp ceramic (IP-CHA). To achieve this, we evaluated in vitro the compressive strength, controlled rhBMP-2 release behavior, adherent cell morphology, cell adhesion manner, and cell attachment of UDPHAp. As a further in vivo experiment, UDPHAp and IP-CHA with rhBMP-2 were transplanted into mouse calvarial defects to evaluate their bone-forming ability. The Results demonstrated that the maximum compressive strengths of the UDPHAp was 7.89 ± 1.23 MPa and higher than that of IP-CHA (1.92 ± 0.53 MPa) (p = 0.0039). However, the breaking energies were similar (8.99 ± 2.72 vs. 13.95 ± 5.69 mJ, p = 0.055). The UDPHAp released rhBMP-2 more gradually in vivo. Cells on the UDPHAp adhered tightly to the surface, which had grown deeply into the scaffolds. A significant increase in cell number on the UDPHAp was observed compared to the IP-CHA on day 8 (102,479 ± 34,391 vs. 32,372 ± 29,061 estimated cells per scaffold, p = 0.0495). In a mouse calvarial defect model, the percentages of new bone area (mature bone + trabecular bone) in the 2x field were 2.514% ± 1.224% for the IP-CHA group and 7.045% ± 2.055% for the UDPHAp group, and the percentage was significantly higher in the UDPHAp group (p = 0.0209). While maintaining the same strength as the IP-CHA, the UDPHAp with 84% porosity showed a high cell number, high cell invasiveness, and excellent bone formation. We believe the UDPHAp is an excellent material that can be applied to bone regenerative medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: regenerative medicine; scaffold; unidirectional pore regenerative medicine; scaffold; unidirectional pore

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tanaka, M.; Haniu, H.; Kamanaka, T.; Takizawa, T.; Sobajima, A.; Yoshida, K.; Aoki, K.; Okamoto, M.; Kato, H.; Saito, N. Physico-Chemical, In Vitro, and In Vivo Evaluation of a 3D Unidirectional Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration. Materials 2017, 10, 33.

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