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Energies 2016, 9(9), 664;

MMCS: Multi-Module Charging Strategy for Increasing the Lifetime of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

Department of Management Information Systems, National Chiayi University, No. 580, Xinmin Rd., West District, Chiayi 600, Taiwan
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Formosa University, No. 64, Wunhua Rd., Huwei Township, Yunlin County 632, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chang Wu Yu
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
PDF [4905 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]


In recent years, wireless charging technology has provided an alternative to charging equipment. Wireless charging technology has already proved to be useful in our daily lives in phones, buses, restaurants, etc. Wireless charging technology can also be applied in energy-bounded wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and these are called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). The optimized charging path problem is the most widely discussed issue in employing WRSNs with wireless charging vehicles (WCVs). This problem involves determining the most efficient path for charging sensor nodes. Further, charging-scheduling problems also need to be considered in the optimized charging path problem. In this paper, we proposed a multi-module charging strategy (MMCS) used to prolong the lifetime of the entire WRSN. MMCS can be divided into three stages: the charging topology, charging scheduling, and charging strategy stages, with multiple modules in each stage. The best module combination of MMCS is the distance-based module in the charging topology stage, delay-based module in the charging schedule stage, and the average lifetime module in the charging strategy stage. The best module combination enables prolonging the lifetime efficiently, as it considers not only the priority of urgent nodes but also the travel distance of WCV; the delay-based module of the charging schedule stage considers the delay effect on the follow-up nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed MMCS can improve the lifetime of the entire WRSN and that it substantially outperforms the nearest job next with preemption (NJNP) method in terms of lifetime improvement of the entire WRSN. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); optimized charging path problem wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); optimized charging path problem

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Chang, H.-Y.; Lin, J.-C.; Wu, Y.-F.; Huang, S.-C. MMCS: Multi-Module Charging Strategy for Increasing the Lifetime of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. Energies 2016, 9, 664.

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