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A Modified Bird-Mating Optimization with Hill-Climbing for Connection Decisions of Transformers

Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71070, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Issouf Fofana
Energies 2016, 9(9), 671;
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
PDF [4612 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]


This paper endeavors to apply a hybrid bird-mating optimization approach to connection decisions of distribution transformers. It is expected that with the aid of hybrid bird-mating approach, the voltage imbalance and deviation can be mitigated, hence ensuring a satisfactory supplying power more effectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, it has been tested through practical distribution systems with comparisons to other methods. Test results help confirm the feasibility of the approach, serving as beneficial references for the improvement of electric power grid operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: bird-mating optimization; voltage imbalance; and voltage deviation bird-mating optimization; voltage imbalance; and voltage deviation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ou, T.-C.; Su, W.-F.; Liu, X.-Z.; Huang, S.-J.; Tai, T.-Y. A Modified Bird-Mating Optimization with Hill-Climbing for Connection Decisions of Transformers. Energies 2016, 9, 671.

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