Next Article in Journal
Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm
Next Article in Special Issue
Advances in Thin-Film Si Solar Cells by Means of SiOx Alloys
Previous Article in Journal
Quantifying the Impact of Feedstock Quality on the Design of Bioenergy Supply Chain Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Intermittent Very High Frequency Plasma Deposition on Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Enabling High Conversion Efficiency
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Energies 2016, 9(3), 207;

Progress on Low-Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto Materiali per l'Elettronica e il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, Parma 43124, Italy
Department of Physics, University of Parma, Parma 43124, Italy
Department of Physics, St.Thomas’ College, Thrissur, Kerala 680001, India
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), University Campus, Lecce 73100, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Antonio Sánchez Pérez
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Developments in Thin Film Solar Cells)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3437 KB, uploaded 16 March 2016]   |  


The quest for single-stage deposition of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) is an open race to replace very effective but capital intensive thin film solar cell manufacturing processes like multiple-stage coevaporation or sputtering combined with high pressure selenisation treatments. In this paper the most recent achievements of Low Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition (LTPED), a novel single stage deposition process by which CIGS can be deposited at 250 °C, are presented and discussed. We show that selenium loss during the film deposition is not a problem with LTPED as good crystalline films are formed very close to the melting temperature of selenium. The mechanism of formation of good ohmic contacts between CIGS and Mo in the absence of any MoSe2 transition layers is also illustrated, followed by a brief summary of the measured characteristics of test solar cells grown by LTPED. The 17% efficiency target achieved by lab-scale CIGS devices without bandgap modulation, antireflection coating or K-doping is considered to be a crucial milestone along the path to the industrial scale-up of LTPED. The paper ends with a brief review of the open scientific and technological issues related to the scale-up and the possible future applications of the new technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; thin films; pulsed electron deposition; CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) photovoltaics; thin films; pulsed electron deposition; CuInGaSe2 (CIGS)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mazzer, M.; Rampino, S.; Gombia, E.; Bronzoni, M.; Bissoli, F.; Pattini, F.; Calicchio, M.; Kingma, A.; Annoni, F.; Calestani, D.; Cavallari, N.; Thottapurath Vijayan, V.; Lomascolo, M.; Cretì, A.; Gilioli, E. Progress on Low-Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells. Energies 2016, 9, 207.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top