# Increasing the Efficiency of Turbine Inlet Air Cooling in Climatic Conditions of China through Rational Designing—Part 1: A Case Study for Subtropical Climate: General Approaches and Criteria

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. General Assumptions and Hypothesis

- The values of the TIAC system cooling capacity, which provide the maximum rate of the total increase in annual effect due to TIAC, and provide practically the maximum annual effect, for instance, reduction in fuel consumption, are due to converging dry bulb and wet bulb ambient air temperatures, leading to an increase in actual thermal loading in subtropical climatic conditions.
- Converging the values of cooling capacities, which provide the maximum rate of the total effect increase due to TIAC and maximum annual effect, enables us to design TIAC systems proceeding from the maximum rate of annual effect increase at minimum installed cooling capacity and system sizes accordingly.

#### 2.2. The Computation Procedure

_{e}due to TIAC is accepted as a primary criterion and calculated according to hour-by-hour summary procedure all year round:

_{e}= ∑(Δt

_{a}· τ · b

_{et}· P

_{e}10

^{−3}), t,

_{a}—actual value of the drop in the temperature of ambient intake air, Δt

_{a}= t

_{a}− t

_{a}

_{2}, K or °C; P

_{e}—power output of GT, kW; τ—time period, h; b

_{et}= b

_{e}/Δt

_{a}—specific fuel decrease for Δt

_{a}= 1 K or 1 °C, accepted as 0.35 g/(kWh·K).

_{e}calculation are presented as relative values for unit power of GT (P

_{e}= 1 kW): ∑b

_{e}= ∑B

_{e}/P

_{e}, kg/kW.

_{0}and calculated as the absolute value Q

_{0}, referring to the unit of air mass flow rate G

_{a}= 1 kg/s: q

_{0}= Q

_{0}/G

_{a}or

_{0}= ξ · c

_{ma}· Δt

_{a}, kW/(kg/s) or kJ/kg

_{ma}—humide air specific heat, kJ/(kg·K).

_{a}and relative humidity φ

_{a}are used by applying http://www.meteomanz.com accessed on 15 January 2020. (Figure 1).

_{0rat}and optimum q

_{0opt}for designing specific cooling capacities for subtropical climates in a coastal region (Shanghai) and an inland region (Nanjing) are presented in Figure 3. The optimal values q

_{0.15opt}and q

_{0.10opt}of cooling capacity for ambient air cooling to 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively, are defined according to the maximum value of the ratio Σb

_{e}/q

_{0}within the whole range of Σb

_{e}as the first, global, maximum of the cumulative characteristic Σb

_{e}= f(q

_{0}). In their turn, the rational values q

_{0.15rat}and q

_{0.10rat}of cooling capacity are defined according to the second maximum value of the ratio (Σb

_{e}− Σb

_{e.opt})/q

_{0}within the range of (Σb

_{e}− Σb

_{e.opt})/q

_{0}beyond the first maximum of cumulative characteristic Σb

_{e}= f(q

_{0}), where Σb

_{e}> Σb

_{e.opt}. Thus, the ratio Σb

_{e}/q

_{0}is used as an indicator to define the maximum of the cumulative characteristic Σb

_{e}= f(q

_{0}). The optimal cooling capacity q

_{0.opt}makes it possible to achieve a maximum rate of total annual effect increase Σb

_{e}/q

_{0}due to TIAC, and the rational value of design cooling capacity q

_{0.rat}enables it to reach a practical maximum annual effect in fuel reduction, however without oversizing: q

_{0.rat}< q

_{0.max}(Figure 3a,b).

_{0.10opt}is close to its rational value q

_{0.10rat}. Therefore, to simplify the calculation procedure and gain more precise values of the results simultaneously, the rational design cooling capacity q

_{0.10rat}could be accepted as the optimum value increased by about 5 kJ/kg: q

_{0.10rat}= q

_{0.10opt}+ 5 kJ/kg. The optimum value q

_{0.10opt}is determined according to the global maximum rate of annual specific fuel reduction increase as the first maximum of relative values Σb

_{e}/q

_{0}over the range of their variation (Figure 3c,d).

## 3. Results

_{e}

_{15}due to GT inlet air cooling to 15 °C with temperature depression Δt

_{15}using the ACh, and the values of Δb

_{e}

_{10}according to the ambient air temperature drop Δt

_{10}when cooling to 10 °C using the AECh were calculated for climatic conditions from July 2017 (Figure 4 and Figure 5). The calculations were conducted for GT General Electric GE 9351FA GT (rated power 260 MW), proceeding from specific fuel consumption reduction Δb

_{e}by 0.35 g/(kWh) for each 1 °C of air temperature reduction Δt

_{a}.

_{0.15}and to 10 °C in a combined two-stage AECh q

_{0.10}(Figure 6), one can see that the specific thermal load on the ECh for subcooling air from 15 °C to 10 °C, calculated as thermal load difference Δq

_{0.10–15}, is approximately 10 kJ/kg. The reason for this is that the thermal load changes fall on a comparatively high-temperature range of precooling air from the ambient temperatures t

_{a}to 15 °C in a high-temperature ACh stage.

_{0.10–15}required to offset the thermal load range for subcooling air confirms the hypothesis of the reasonable application of ECh as the simplest and cheapest method, despite it operating efficiently only at the stable thermal load.

## 4. Discussion

_{0.15rat}and optimum q

_{0.15opt}specific cooling capacities, current cooling capacities q

_{0.15}required for cooling the ambient air to 15 °C, deficit of rational q

_{0.15rat.def}and optimum q

_{0.15opt.def}cooling capacities for cooling ambient air to 15 °C in ACh, as well as their values for cooling ambient air to 10 °C in AECh during July 2017 in the subtropical climate of Nanjing and Shanghai are presented in Figure 7 and Figure 8.

_{0.10opt}is close to its rational value q

_{0.10rat}and generally covers current cooling capacities q

_{0.10}, as is confirmed by the quite small and rare values of their deficit q

_{0.10rat.d}and q

_{0.10opt.d}. Therefore, to simplify the calculation procedure, the optimum value q

_{0.10opt}increased by about 5 kJ/kg could be accepted as the rational design cooling capacity q

_{0.10rat}for the subtropical coastal climate of Shanghai.

_{0.10opt}is determined according to the first maximum of relative values ΣΔb

_{e}/q

_{0}over the entire range of their variation (Figure 3a,c). In the subtropical climate of inland Nanjing, the values of optimum cooling capacity deficit q

_{0.10opt.d}are sometimes twice as high: from 5 to 10 kJ/kg, which is caused by an increased value of difference between rational q

_{0.10rat}and optimum q

_{0.10opt}design cooling capacities: q

_{0.10rat}− q

_{0.10opt}= 8 kJ/kg (Figure 3a,c and Figure 8a).

_{0.15opt}or q

_{0.10opt}increased by 5 to 8 kJ/kg as design values for ACh or AECh for a subtropical climate, justified at the differential level (by current values) (Figure 7b and Figure 8b), can be confirmed at the integral level (by total values) as well (Figure 9 and Figure 10).

_{0.15opt.d}· τ) are entirely coved by its excess Σ(q

_{0.15opt.ex}· τ), which justifies the use of optimum cooling capacity increased by 5 to 8 kJ/kg as a design value.

_{0.15opt.ex}≈ q

_{0.10opt.ex}) (Figure 9a and Figure 10a), as well as the corresponding values of their deficit (q

_{0.15opt.d}≈ q

_{0.10opt.ex}) (Figure 9b and Figure 10b) are confirmed by the summary values of specific refrigeration energy excess Σ(q

_{0.15opt.ex}· τ) ≈ Σ(q

_{0.10opt.ex}· τ) and Σ(q

_{0.15opt.d}· τ) ≈ Σ(q

_{0.10opt.d}· τ).

_{0.10}from optimum q

_{0.10opt}design cooling capacities when cooling ambient air to 10 °C in AECh are caused by the corresponding deviations in the actual thermal loads q

_{0.15}from optimum q

_{0.15opt}values for cooling ambient air to 15 °C in ACh.

_{e}

_{10}/B

_{e}

_{15}and absolute B

_{e}

_{10}–B

_{e}

_{15}values for GTU GE 9351FA (General Electric) due to cooling the intake air to 10 °C in AECh and to 15 °C in ACh in July 2017 for climatic conditions in Nanjing and Shanghai (subtropical) and Lanzhou (temperate continental climate).

_{e}and total fuel savings ΣB

_{e}during 2017 for 10 MW in Figure 12.

_{e}in 2017, while comparing a deep cooling to 10 °C (ΣB

_{e}

_{10}) in a combined AECh with a moderate cooling to 15 °C (ΣB

_{e}

_{15}) in ACh, is about 100 t. However, the aerodynamic resistance of GT intake air cooler requires power to overcome it and supplementary fuel consumption. Therefore, the actual effect, in particular in fuel reduction, will be somewhat less.

_{f}/B

_{f15}due to cooling intake air to various temperatures t

_{a}

_{2}in Figure 13.

_{f}/B

_{f15}≈ 1.5 as compared with typical TIAC to 15 °C with ACh (Figure 5a,b). Thus, the newly developed method enables us to determine a rational design for cooling capacity that provides nearly maximum annual fuel savings ∑B according to actual climatic conditions and avoids oversizing the chiller.

_{2}emissions by 428.7 g and NO

_{X}by 2.78 g, the annual reduction in emissions for 2017 was calculated (Figure 14 and Figure 15).

_{2}emissions by 90 t annually, depending on the climatic conditions of the region. Deeper cooling to 10 °C ensures their reduction to 140 t for the considered climatic conditions.

_{X}emissions are reduced by 0.5–0.6 t per year, while for deep cooling to 10 °C, they are increased to 0.92–0.96 t depending on the region.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

Nomenclature and units | ||

ACh | Absorption lithium-bromide chiller | |

AECh | Absorption–ejector chiller | |

COP | Coefficient of performance | |

ECh | Ejector chiller | |

GT | Gas turbine | |

TIAC | Turbine intake air cooling | |

WAC | Water Atomization Cooling | |

Symbols and units | ||

a | ambient air | |

B | fuel reduction | t |

b_{e} | specific fuel consumption | g/kWh |

c_{ma} | air specific heat | kJ/(kg·K) |

d_{a} | absolute humidity | g/kg |

G | mass flow rate | kg/s |

P_{e} | power | kW |

Q_{0} | total cooling capacity | kW |

q_{0} | specific cooling capacity | kJ/kg; kW/(kg/s) |

q_{0.15opt}; q_{0.10opt} | optimum values for cooling air to 15 °C and 10 °C | kJ/kg |

q_{0.15rat}; q_{0.10rat} | rational values for cooling air to 15 °C and 10 °C | kJ/kg |

q_{0.15rat_ex} | excess of rational design value when cooling air to 15 °C | kJ/kg |

q_{0.15opt_d} | deficit of optimum design value when cooling air to 15 °C | kJ/kg |

t_{a} | air temperature | °C; K |

φ | relative humidity | % |

τ | time | h |

Δt | temperature drop | °C; K |

ΣB | annual, monthly fuel reduction | t |

ξ | specific heat ratio | |

Subscripts | ||

10, 15 | set temperature 10 °C and 15 °C | |

a | ambient air | |

d | deficit | |

ex | excess | |

f | fuel | |

max | maximum | |

opt | optimum | |

rat | rational |

## Appendix A

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**Figure 1.**Current values of ambient air temperature t

_{a}, absolute d

_{a}and relative φ

_{a}humidity in July 2017: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 2.**A scheme of the developed TIAC system with two-stage cooling air in AECh: AC

_{HT}and AC

_{LT}—high- and low-temperature stages of air cooler.

**Figure 3.**Annual specific fuel reduction Σb

_{e}and relative values Σb

_{e}/q

_{0}with a global maximum (

**a**) and relative values (Σb

_{e}− Σb

_{e.opt})/q

_{0}with a local maximum (

**b**) depending on design-specific cooling capacity q

_{0}for 2017: t

_{a2}= 10 °C—for AECh; 15 °C—forACh; (

**a**,

**b**)—Nanjing; (

**c**,

**d**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 4.**Current values of decrease in ambient air temperature at the inlet of GT Δt

_{15}due to cooling to 15 °C with ACh, reduction in GT specific fuel consumption Δb

_{e}

_{15}and specific cooling capacities needed q

_{0.15}: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 5.**Current values of decrease in ambient air temperature at the inlet of GT Δt

_{10}due to cooling to 10 °C with AECh, reduction in GT specific fuel consumption Δb

_{e}

_{10}as well as specific cooling capacities needed q

_{0.10}: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 6.**Current specific cooling capacities q

_{0.10}needed for cooling ambient air at the inlet of GT to 10 °C in AECh, q

_{0.15}—needed for cooling air to 15 °C in ACh and their differences Δq

_{0.10–15}as cooling capacities required for subcooling air from 15 °C to 10 °C in ECh: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 7.**Actual values of specific cooling capacities q

_{0.15}required for cooling GT inlet air to 15 °C by ACh, rational q

_{0.15rat}and optimum q

_{0.15opt}design cooling capacities, their deficit q

_{0.15rat_d}and q

_{0.15opt_d}for July 2017: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 8.**Actual values of specific cooling capacities q

_{0.10}required for cooling ambient air to 10 °C by AECh, rational q

_{0.10rat}and optimum q

_{0.10opt}design cooling capacities, their deficit q

_{0.10rat_d}and q

_{0.10opt_.d}during July 2017: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai; q

_{0.10rat_d}= q

_{0.10}− q

_{0.10rat}; q

_{0.10opt_d}= q

_{0.10}− q

_{0.10opt}.

**Figure 9.**Current cooling capacities q

_{0.15}for cooling ambient air to t

_{a}

_{2}= 15 °C in ACh and optimum value q

_{0.15opt}, current excess of optimum cooling capacity q

_{0.15opt.ex}and summary excess of refrigeration energy Σ(q

_{0.15opt.ex}· τ) (

**a**), current q

_{0.15opt.def}and summary deficit Σ(q

_{0.15opt.def}· τ) (

**b**) during July 2017, Nanjing.

**Figure 10.**Current cooling capacities q

_{0.10}for cooling ambient air to t

_{a}

_{2}= 10 °C with AECh and optimum value q

_{0.10opt}, corresponding current q

_{0.15opt.ex}and summary excess Σ(q

_{0.15opt.ex}· τ) (

**a**), current q

_{0.10opt.def}and summary deficit Σ(q

_{0.10opt.def}· τ) (

**b**) during July 2017, Nanjing.

**Figure 11.**Fuel consumption savings in relative B

_{e}

_{10}/B

_{e}

_{15}and absolute B

_{e}

_{10}–B

_{e}

_{15}values for GTU GE 9351FA (General Electric) due to cooling air to 10 °C in AECh and to 15 °C in ACh in July 2017: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 12.**The values of monthly fuel reduction B

_{e}and total fuel savings ΣB

_{e}in 2017 due to TIAC to various values of t

_{a}

_{2}: 10 °C—AECh; 15 °C—ACh; (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 13.**The relative values of annual fuel reduction B

_{f}/B

_{f15}due to TIAC to various values of t

_{a}

_{2}referred to B

_{f15}gained due to cooling air to 15 °C: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 14.**Reduction in carbon dioxide ΣCO

_{2}emissions during 2017 due to TIAC to various values of t

_{a}

_{2}: 10 °C—in AECh; 15 °C—in ACh: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

**Figure 15.**Reduction in nitric oxide ΣNO

_{X}emissions during 2017 due to TIAC to various values of t

_{a}

_{2}: 10 °C—in AECh; 15 °C—in ACh: (

**a**)—Nanjing; (

**b**)—Shanghai.

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Radchenko, M.; Yang, Z.; Pavlenko, A.; Radchenko, A.; Radchenko, R.; Koshlak, H.; Bao, G.
Increasing the Efficiency of Turbine Inlet Air Cooling in Climatic Conditions of China through Rational Designing—Part 1: A Case Study for Subtropical Climate: General Approaches and Criteria. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 6105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176105

**AMA Style**

Radchenko M, Yang Z, Pavlenko A, Radchenko A, Radchenko R, Koshlak H, Bao G.
Increasing the Efficiency of Turbine Inlet Air Cooling in Climatic Conditions of China through Rational Designing—Part 1: A Case Study for Subtropical Climate: General Approaches and Criteria. *Energies*. 2023; 16(17):6105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176105

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Radchenko, Mykola, Zongming Yang, Anatoliy Pavlenko, Andrii Radchenko, Roman Radchenko, Hanna Koshlak, and Guozhi Bao.
2023. "Increasing the Efficiency of Turbine Inlet Air Cooling in Climatic Conditions of China through Rational Designing—Part 1: A Case Study for Subtropical Climate: General Approaches and Criteria" *Energies* 16, no. 17: 6105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176105