Reliability Improvement of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated Distribution System
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Literature Survey
Research Gap
 The VCS integration in the distribution system is considered an additional load to charge the EVs.
 The impact of the increased load (VCS) in the distribution system is rectified by the optimal integration of DG.
 Reliability analysis is performed to study the effectiveness of the system.
3. System Description
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
4. Problem Formulation
4.1. Voltage Stability Index (VSI)
4.2. Reliability Index
4.3. Objective Function
 Power Balance Constraint$${P}_{SS}={\sum}_{i=2}^{B}{P}_{D,i}+{\sum}_{k=1}^{L}{P}_{loss,k}{P}_{DG}+{P}_{CS}.$$
 Voltage Constraint$${V}_{i,min}\le {V}_{i}\le {V}_{i,max}.$$
 DG Penetration Constraint$${P}_{DG}\le {\sum}_{i=2}^{B}{P}_{D,i}+{P}_{VCS}.$$
4.4. Forward and Backward Sweep Algorithm
5. Methodology
Algorithm 1. Proposed methodology to analyze system performance. 
STEP 1: The location of the substation, number of feeders and their interconnected branches with main and lateral feeders are noted from the IEEE radial distribution system. 
STEP 2: The power demand in each load bus is noted for the IEEE system. 
STEP 3: The impedance values of the distribution lines between the buses are noted for the IEEE system. 
STEP 4: Forward and backward sweep load flow analysis is performed with the collected data. 
STEP 5: The voltage at each bus and the current through each branch is calculated through the forward and backward sweep, respectively. 
STEP 6: Power flow, voltage, current and losses are obtained through load flow analysis. 
STEP 7: VCS is placed arbitrarily in the last bus of the selected distribution system. The power demand in the VCS location is changed from P to (P + P_{VCS}). 
STEP 8: Along with VCS in the system, VSI is calculated to place the DG in an optimal location. In this case, P_{VCS} is included in calculating the current and voltage for load flow using Equations (19)–(21). 
STEP 9: The optimal location for DG is selected by VSI using Equations (12) and (13). 
STEP 10: The DG size is determined by analytical method with the objective of power loss minimization using Equation (15). 
STEP 11: The DG size should satisfy all the power system constraints Equations (16)–(18). Here, P_{DG} and P_{VCS} are included in calculating the current and voltage for load flow using Equations (19)–(21). 
STEP 12: LOLP is calculated to estimate the system reliability Equation (14). 
STEP 13: The system reliability is analyzed for one complete day by considering only VCS and both VCS and DG. Here, for only VCS, G(t) includes the power source (P_{in}) and losses, whereas L(t) includes the load connected (standard load and EV load). In the case of both VCS and DG, G(t) includes the power sources (P_{DG} and P_{in}) and losses, whereas L(t) includes the load connected (standard load and EV load). 
STEP 14: A comparative study is performed to identify the system which has higher reliability. 
STEP 15: Further, all the power flow parameters are compared between the two systems. 
STEP 16: The system, which has both VCS and DG, has improved voltage, improved reliability and reduced loss. 
6. Results and Discussion
6.1. System Analysis
6.1.1. Integration of VCS and DG
6.1.2. Performance Evaluation
6.1.3. Reliability Evaluation
7. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Nomenclature
HEV  Hybrid Electric Vehicle 
DG  Distributed Generation 
VCS  Vehicle Charging Station 
VSI  Voltage Stability Index 
LOLP  Loss Of Load Probability 
P_{i}  Real power injected at bus i 
Q_{i}  Reactive power injected at bus i 
R_{i}  Resistance between the buses in branch i 
X_{i}  Reactance between the buses in branch i 
P_{DG}  Real power supplied through DG 
P_{VCS}  Real power absorbed through VCS 
P_{in}  Real power injected in the substation 
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Reference Number  Objective  Summary 

[6,8,10,11,16,17,18,19,20]  Reliability analysis 

[7,9]  Voltage profile improvement 

[12]  Power quality analysis 

[13,14,15,21]  Power loss minimization 

Parameters  Standard System (without VCS/DG)  VCS Connected  VCS and DG Connected 

Location of DG      9 
Size of DG (kW)      400 
Location of VCS    12  12 
Size of VCS (kW)    156.8  156.8 
Substation real power (kW)  455.7138  634.9223  85.6682 
Substation Reactive Power (kVAr)  413.0411  421.0105  413.1343 
Real power loss (kW)  20.7138  43.1223  18.922 
Reactive power loss (kVAr)  8.0411  16.0105  6.4721 
Parameters  Standard System  VCS Connected  VCS and DG Connected 

Location of DG      6 
Size of DG (kW)      2750 
Location of VCS    33  33 
Size of VCS (kW)    156.8  156.8 
Substation real power (kW)  3884.5  4058.2  1217.9 
Substation Reactive Power (kVAr)  2414.8  2426.5  2371.1 
Real power loss (kW)  169.5135  186.3839  96.0627 
Reactive power loss (kVAr)  114.8382  126.541  71.0985 
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Sripriya, R.; Kumar, C.; Xavier, F.J.; Kumar, J.S.; Kotsampopoulos, P.; Fayek, H.H. Reliability Improvement of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated Distribution System. Energies 2023, 16, 3984. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16103984
Sripriya R, Kumar C, Xavier FJ, Kumar JS, Kotsampopoulos P, Fayek HH. Reliability Improvement of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated Distribution System. Energies. 2023; 16(10):3984. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16103984
Chicago/Turabian StyleSripriya, Ramalingam, Chandrasekaran Kumar, Felix Joseph Xavier, Jeyaraj Senthil Kumar, Panos Kotsampopoulos, and Hady H. Fayek. 2023. "Reliability Improvement of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated Distribution System" Energies 16, no. 10: 3984. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16103984