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Article

Hydrogen-Rich Syngas and Biochar Production by Non-Catalytic Valorization of Date Palm Seeds

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Port Fouad City 42526, Egypt
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Institute of Energy Policy and Research, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan Ikram-Uniten, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Port Fouad City 42526, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdul-Ghani Olabi
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082727
Received: 19 January 2022 / Revised: 6 February 2022 / Accepted: 14 February 2022 / Published: 8 April 2022
Pyrolysis has been demonstrated to be a highly effective thermochemical process for converting complex biomaterials into biochar and syngas rich in hydrogen. The pyrolysis of mixed date palm seeds from Saudi Arabia was conducted using a fixed-bed pyrolyzer that was custom made for the purpose. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature (200–1000 °C) on the various physicochemical parameters of the date seed biochar generated through the pyrolysis process and the hydrogen-rich syngas was investigated. Proximate and ultimate analyses indicated a high carbon content in the lignocellulosic constituents such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, it was discovered that the elemental composition of biochar changes with the pyrolysis temperature. The date seeds pyrolyzed at 800 °C were found to have the maximum carbon concentration, with 97.99% of the total carbon content. The analysis of the biochar indicated a high concentration of carbon, as well as magnesium and potassium. There was a potential for the production of hydrogen-rich syngas, which increased with the pyrolysis temperature. At 1000 °C, the highest hydrogen and carbon monoxide compositions of 40 mol% and 32 mol%, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic data of the date seed pyrolysis were fitted using linearized model-free methods, such as Friedman, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), as well as non-linear methods such as Vyazovkin and advanced Vyazovkin. The activation energies obtained from Friedman, FWO, and KAS varied in the range of 30–75 kJ/mol, 30–65 kJ/mol, and 30–40 kJ/mol, respectively, while those of Vyazovkin and advanced Vyazovkin were found in the range of 25–30 kJ/mol, and 30–70 kJ/mol, respectively. The analysis showed that the FWO and KAS models show smaller variation compared to Friedman. View Full-Text
Keywords: biochar; biomass valorization; date palm seeds; hydrogen-rich syngas; pyrolysis; model-free kinetics biochar; biomass valorization; date palm seeds; hydrogen-rich syngas; pyrolysis; model-free kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sait, H.H.; Hussain, A.; Bassyouni, M.; Ali, I.; Kanthasamy, R.; Ayodele, B.V.; Elhenawy, Y. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas and Biochar Production by Non-Catalytic Valorization of Date Palm Seeds. Energies 2022, 15, 2727. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082727

AMA Style

Sait HH, Hussain A, Bassyouni M, Ali I, Kanthasamy R, Ayodele BV, Elhenawy Y. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas and Biochar Production by Non-Catalytic Valorization of Date Palm Seeds. Energies. 2022; 15(8):2727. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082727

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sait, Hani Hussain, Ahmed Hussain, Mohamed Bassyouni, Imtiaz Ali, Ramesh Kanthasamy, Bamidele Victor Ayodele, and Yasser Elhenawy. 2022. "Hydrogen-Rich Syngas and Biochar Production by Non-Catalytic Valorization of Date Palm Seeds" Energies 15, no. 8: 2727. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082727

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