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Article

Properties of Animal-Origin Ash—A Valuable Material for Circular Economy

Department of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Academic Editors: Agata Mlonka-Mędrala and David Chiaramonti
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041274
Received: 16 January 2022 / Revised: 2 February 2022 / Accepted: 7 February 2022 / Published: 10 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Waste Conversion: Latest Advances and Prospects)
In the presented paper, two types of animal-origin biomass, cow dung and chicken litter, are characterized in terms of combustion-related problems and ash properties. It was found that these parameters strongly depend on the farming style. Whether it is cow dung or chicken litter, free-range raw materials are characterized by higher ash contents than industrial farming ones. Free-range samples contain chlorine at lower levels, while industrial farming samples are chlorine rich. Free-range samples are characterized by the predominant content of silica in the ash: 75.60% in cow dung and 57.11% in chicken litter, while industrial farming samples contain more calcium. Samples were classified by 11 “slagging indices” based on the ash and fuel composition to evaluate their tendencies for slagging, fouling, ash deposition and bed agglomeration. Furthermore, an assessment was made against the current EU law regulations, whether the ashes can be component materials for fertilizers. The phosphorus concentration in the investigated ashes corresponds to 4.09–23.73 wt% P2O5 and is significantly higher in industrial chicken litter samples. The concentrations of Hg, Cu, As, Ni, Cd and Pb in all samples are below the limits of the UE regulations. However, concentrations of Cr in all samples and Zn in industrial chicken litter exceed these standards. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; animal-origin biomass; chicken litter; cow manure; biomass ash; slagging; chlorine corrosion; SEM; ash characterization biomass; animal-origin biomass; chicken litter; cow manure; biomass ash; slagging; chlorine corrosion; SEM; ash characterization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maj, I.; Kalisz, S.; Ciukaj, S. Properties of Animal-Origin Ash—A Valuable Material for Circular Economy. Energies 2022, 15, 1274. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041274

AMA Style

Maj I, Kalisz S, Ciukaj S. Properties of Animal-Origin Ash—A Valuable Material for Circular Economy. Energies. 2022; 15(4):1274. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041274

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maj, Izabella, Sylwester Kalisz, and Szymon Ciukaj. 2022. "Properties of Animal-Origin Ash—A Valuable Material for Circular Economy" Energies 15, no. 4: 1274. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041274

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