eCooking Delivery Models: Approach to Designing Delivery Models for Electric Pressure Cookers with Case Study for Tanzania
1.1. Research Context
1.2. Literature Review
1.2.1. Energy Delivery Models
- The enabling environment: the legal frameworks and policies that influence the delivery of energy services.
- The socio-cultural context: the cultural and social values of the end-users and other actors in the energy service supply chain.
- Support services: additional inputs required to overcome barriers or weaknesses in the enabling environment or socio-cultural context, these are extensions of the EDM itself.
1.2.2. Energy Market System Framework
- The market chain: the actors and actions that comprise the delivery of the product or service to the end-users.
- Inputs, services, finance: secondary inputs that support the actors and their activities in the main market chain, some of which will have their own value chains (e.g., physical materials, transport services, loans).
- The enabling environment: the conditions in which the other two levels operate (political, regulatory, financial, and, in contrast to the EDM concept, inclusive of socio-cultural factors which affect energy service uptake and use).
1.2.3. Clean Cooking Scale-Up Models
- The enabling environment: policy and regulations, fiscal context, the political context.
- ‘Industry’ structure and services: physical infrastructure related to the fuel; practices, rules and regulations related to the industry actors; sustainability of supply.
- Energy pricing and costing: capital and running costs of clean fuels and the alternatives, possible cobenefits.
- User and community needs and perceptions: perceptions of affordability, safety, convenience, and aspirational nature of the fuel; awareness of the options.
- Factors influencing consumer demand: other factors not yet covered including consumer knowledge of fuel performance; consumer setting; reliability and quantity of supply; affordability; accessibility; presence of training and finance; and other socio-economic factors.
1.2.4. Reflection on Literature
1.2.5. Paper Scope and Layout
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. eCooking Delivery Models and the eCooking Market System
- eCooking Delivery Model. The specific route to end-users, comprising the activities, resources, and actors in the market chain needed to deliver eCooking appliances to them. These include:
- The appliance itself.
- The market chain to be used or optimized for appliance distribution to end-users: Manufacturers, importers, retailers, distributors.
- The electricity infrastructure to supply the electricity.
- Securing finance to enable market actors in their activities.
- Maintenance and repair of the appliances.
- Support services. These are an extension of the delivery model itself, being additional support services needed to deliver eCooking appliances to end-users and support their sustained use. The support services are required to strengthen the market system, addressing weaknesses or gaps in the enabling environment, socio-economic and cultural context, or market chains.
- Socio-economic and cultural context. While this encompasses socio-economic and cultural context of end-users (their values, customs, and practices that might influence their behaviors towards adopting or not adopting an eCooking appliance), it is also applied to other actors in the market chain, given these factors could be drivers or barriers for their participation in an eCDM or support service.
- Enabling environment. The policies and legal frameworks that influence the delivery of eCooking appliances and the electricity infrastructure. Although many of the enabling environment factors are beyond the direct control of the market actors and end-users, assessment of these attributes is important for designing measures for developing sustainable eCDMs.
- Market chains. Market chain actors and established and potential market chains, and data on how the market chains are functioning, i.e., the size of the market and its existing operation.
2.2. eCooking Delivery Model Design Approach
2.3. Conducting the eCooking Delivery Model Design Approach in Tanzania
- Rural end-users: End-users in rural areas who have access to electricity through mini-grids run by PowerGen Renewable Energy. They were mostly low-income smallholder farmers who depend on income from agricultural products at Kitaita and Songambele, Gairo District, Morogoro Region.
- Peri-urban/urban end-users: End-users in peri-urban and urban areas who have access to electricity through the national grid. They were from high, medium and low-income households of Kinondoni and Ubungo Districts in Dar es Salaam Region.
3.1. Step 2: Stakeholder Mapping
3.2. Step 3: Understanding the End-User
3.2.1. End-User Segments
3.2.2. Demand for EPCs
3.2.3. Barriers for End-User Adoption of EPCs
3.2.4. End-User Drivers for Adoption and Value Proposition
3.3. Step 4: Understanding the Market Chains
3.3.1. Identification of Market Chains
3.3.2. EPC Gross Margin and Tax Analysis
3.3.3. Capacity Gaps for Market Chain Actors
3.4. Step 5: Understanding the Enabling Environment
3.4.1. Electricity Access
3.4.2. Policies and the Policy Environment
3.5. Step 6: Identify and Design eCDM and Support Services
- Awareness-raising campaigns and promotion of EPCs to end-users and other market actors.
- Capacity building training on how to use the EPC for end-users.
- Financial support for market chain actors and end-users.
- After sale services for EPCs.
- Advocacy for import tax exemptions and quality standards.
3.5.1. eCDM for Rural End-users
3.5.2. eCDM for Peri-Urban/Urban End-Users
3.5.3. Other Support Services
3.6. Step 7: Plan and Implement
- Dissemination of the Tanzania eCookbook , and training and workshop events, to raise awareness and provide training in how to use an EPC.
- Investigation of EPC repair and maintenance and compilation of a technical manual to be used by technicians providing after sales services.
- Training of technicians in Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, and Kilimanjaro to provide these after sales services.
- Recruitment and training of distribution agents—individuals with strong links into target communities, to disseminate EPCs from an importer of quality EPCs (to reduce the length of the market chain).
- Advocacy targeted at relevant ministries to remove import tax on EPCs to reduce the cost to the end-user.
- Advocacy for financial support for market chain actors to bulk trade in EPCs to address the upcoming availability barrier.
- Advocacy directed at TBS to set eCooking appliance standards and a process to enforce them.
- Conception of an alliance of market chain actors in the eCooking Market System in Tanzania to work together to address enabling environment gaps or market system deficits.
- Trialing credit services for low-income end-users and investigating which microfinance institutions can offer these successfully.
Implementation Thus Far
4.1. Finance and Credit Mechanisms
4.2. Reflection on the eCDM Concept and Approach
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Financial Institutions||Development Partners||Sectoral Ministries and Government Institutions|
Akiba Commercial Bank
National Microfinance Bank
FINCA Microfinance Bank
|Embassy of People’s Republic of China|
Embassy of Japan
Delegation of the European Union to Tanzania
Swedish Embassy in Tanzania
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF)
|Ministry of Energy|
Ministry of Trade and Industries
President Office-Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Governments
Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority (EWURA)
Rural Energy Agency (REA)
Tanzania Electric Supply Company (TANESCO)
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|11 household surveys||40 household surveys|
|Two focus groups (1 incl. eCooking demo)|
(Participants: village leaders, leaders of women’s groups, leaders and members of VICOBAs, minigrid staff)
|Nine focus groups (incl. eCooking demos)|
(Participants: One with VICOBA representatives; Three with local government staff; Five with mixed stakeholders: women’s group representatives, local government staff, local appliance vendors, VICOBA/SACCO representatives)
|One participatory rural appraisal workshop (incl. eCooking demo)|
(Participants: village leaders and a demographic range of village members)
|Total participants: 47 smallholder and medium scale farmers, 86 households, and 24 businesses||Total participants: 117 households, 92 households engaging in the informal business sector, and 29 enterprises|
|Low Income Segment||Medium Income Segment||High Income Segment|
|Daily income (GBP)||<7.50||7.50 ≤ x < 15.00||≥15.00|
|Livelihood activities and location||Smallholder farmers (rural)|
Informal business sector (rural and urban)
Other rural and urban households
|Medium-scale farmers (rural)|
Faith-based organization employees (rural and urban)
|Large farmers (rural)|
Salaried employees (urban)
Business owners (urban)
|% National population||53 (31.6 million)||32 (19.1 million)||15 (9 million)|
|End-User Group||EPCs Purchased in Study||EPCs Purchased at End of Study|
|Rural (all deposit and installments)||6||10|
|Reduce time and labor for collecting cooking fuels|
Reduce time spent cooking
|Reduce household expenditure on cooking fuels|
Reduce time and effort spent cooking
Reduce indoor air pollution
Increased safety when cooking
Potential to use in a food vending business
Cleaner kitchen environment
|Gross profit margin||7782||2.57|
|Gross profit margin||6767||2.23|
|Gross profit margin||6444||2.13|
|Insurance & freight||15,500||5.12|
|Lack of capital for import duties|
Lack of knowledge on quality, and no standards to regulate quality
Requires business training (enterprise development training)
|Lack of established market networks|
Undeveloped marketing techniques/experience for EPCs
|Weak transport links |
Lack of established customer network
|Lack of awareness of the EPC|
Does not have EPC repair skills or links to after sales services
|----------------Lack of capital for bulk appliance purchase----------------|
|Tanzania Monetary Policy (2018)|
Tanzania Fiscal Policy (2017)
Tanzania Trade Policy (2017)
National Micro-Finance Policy (2017)
National Energy Policy (2015)
Energy Subsidy Policy (2013)
National Public Private Partnership Policy (2009)
Feed-in Tariff Policy (2004)
National SMEs Policy (2003)
|Power System Master Plan (2016)|
SE4ALL Action Agenda (2015)
Tanzania Investment Prospectus (SE4ALL) (2015)
Electricity Supply Industry Reform Strategy and Roadmap 2014–2025 (2014)
Biomass Energy Strategy for Tanzania (BEST) (2014)
Standardized Power Purchase Agreement & Tariffs (2008)
National Five-Year Development Plan 2021/22–2025/26
|Tanzania Trade Development Authority Act (2009)|
Electricity Act of 2008
Business Activities Registration Act 2007
Energy and Water Utility Regulatory Authority Act (2006)
Rural Energy Agency Act of 2005
Environmental Management Act
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Shuma, J.C.; Sawe, E.; Clements, A.; Meena, S.B.; Aloyce, K.; Ngaya, A.E. eCooking Delivery Models: Approach to Designing Delivery Models for Electric Pressure Cookers with Case Study for Tanzania. Energies 2022, 15, 771. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030771
Shuma JC, Sawe E, Clements A, Meena SB, Aloyce K, Ngaya AE. eCooking Delivery Models: Approach to Designing Delivery Models for Electric Pressure Cookers with Case Study for Tanzania. Energies. 2022; 15(3):771. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030771Chicago/Turabian Style
Shuma, Jensen C., Estomih Sawe, Anna Clements, Shukuru B. Meena, Katarina Aloyce, and Anande E. Ngaya. 2022. "eCooking Delivery Models: Approach to Designing Delivery Models for Electric Pressure Cookers with Case Study for Tanzania" Energies 15, no. 3: 771. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030771