# Investigation of Biomass Integrated Air Gasification Regenerative Gas Turbine Power Plants

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## Abstract

**:**

_{2}mole fraction depicted a value of 1.25%, 0.85% of CO, and 10.50% of CH

_{4}for a lower heating value of 38 MJ/kg syngas. It is shown that the gasification air entered into the gasifier decreases amid the increase in the biomass moisture content. At different syngas rates (3–10 kg/s) and optimum ER, the results predicted that the Wood Chip biomass flow rates decrease when the gasifier efficiency increases. The simulation model revealed that ER growths at lower levels have a significant effect on increasing the power of the RGT plant.

## 1. Introduction

_{4}), along with carbon dioxide (CO

_{2}), hydrogen (H

_{2}), and nitrogen (N

_{2}) [17,21]. Nitrogen is not an inflammable gas; thus, it is not preferred as a component in the producer gas, as it dilutes the syngas and has no energy value. The proportion of the thick biomass stage to the total reactor volume is an important factor in classifying the biomass gasifiers. According to this procedure, the gasifier can be categorized into (a) thick-phase gasifiers and (b) lean-phase gasifiers. In the lean-phase gasifier, such as the fluidized bed, the volume occupied by the biomass is very limited to about 0.05–0.20 m

^{3}. Most of the gasifiers used for heavy-duty utilization, particularly in the progressing countries, are the dense-phase reactors, such as the fixed bed reactors, with a dense factor of 0.30–0.08 m

^{3}. Other factors that affect the choice gasifier are the fuel, reactor size, ash content, and moisture. The fixed bed gasifiers have reasonably limited scope power age units and industrial heating applications [22].

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Modeling of Components

_{1}to x

_{6}will be calculated using atomic balancing and equilibrium constant equations. The following are the steps to take [3,42]:

_{gasif}) as follows [54]:

^{3}/s), is calculated by subtracting its lower heating value, LHVg (MJ/Nm

^{3}), from its ideal higher heating value, LHVg (MJ/Nm

^{3}) [17].

_{i}), according to [17]:

_{i}), according to [17]:

_{f}, the needed power output, is divided by the LHV of the biomass (LHV

_{bm}) and by the gasifier efficiency (η

_{gef}) [17]:

_{th}, called the stoichiometric air requirement. Equation (16) [15] shows how to calculate it:

_{a}, is shown below [17]:

_{fa}, at a fuel feed rate of M

_{f}is the amount of actual air [17]:

_{f}is the solid fuel’s lower heating value (LHV). The hot-gas efficiency, abbreviated as η

_{hg}, is defined as [17]:

_{0}is the fuel temperature entering the gasifier, and T

_{f}is the gas temperature at the gasifier egress or the burner’s access [17]. Accordingly, the intake pressure at the compressor inlet was modeled with the following equation [16]:

_{1}and P

_{2}are the compressor’s inlet and outlet air pressure, respectively [18]. The isentropic outlet temperature leaving the compressor is modeled by the equation [35,57,58]:

_{1}and T

_{2}are the compressor inlet and outlet air temperatures, respectively, and T

_{2s}is the compressor isentropic outlet temperature. The specific work required to run the compressor work (W

_{C}) is modeled with the following equation [60]:

_{it}is the turbine inlet temperature, ${\mathrm{C}}_{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{f}}}$ is the specific heat of fuel, and T

_{f}is the temperature of the fuel. The specific heat of the flue gas was modeled with ${\mathrm{C}}_{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{g}}}=1.07\mathrm{kJ}/\mathrm{kg}\xb7\mathrm{K}$; efficiency was set at 95%, and a pressure drop of $\Delta {\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{C}}=0.4785\mathrm{bar}$ was set in the combustor. Accordingly, the efficiency of the combustor is modeled as [35]:

## 4. Results and Discussion

_{2}, water vapor, nitrogen, and a massive decrease in the lower heating value of the syngas. The point of inflection can be regarded as the point of the optimal design of the system to derive the required biomass rate for the necessary air gasification to produce the assigned syngas rates. The produced syngas composition varies with the amount of supplied air to the process.

_{2}and H

_{2}O production rate increases [65]. The increase in the gasification pressure has influenced the RGT thermal efficiency and the syngas LHV due to enhancement of the gasification reactions and the growth of the major constituents of the syngas product. Figure 4 shows the variation of the equivalence ratio (ER) with syngas lower heating value at different wood chips syngas rates (5–25 kg/s), at gasification pressure of 20 bar, the temperature of 1500 K, and moisture content of 12%. The profile exhibited an increase in the syngas LHV with the ER, till an optimum amount of the ER, subsequently the further increase in the ER has led to slow down the syngas LHV.

_{2}concentrations and the decrease in the CH

_{4}concentration in the syngas [67]. The increase in the temperature results in primary and secondary water–gas shift reactions, secondary cracking, and reforming of heavy hydrocarbons activity. Thus this results in increasing the concentration of the H

_{2}in the syngas [54,68]. The activity of water gas shift reaction and Boudouard reactions will significantly increase due to temperature growth.

_{2}O vapor produces a lot of CO. However, the further temperature growth promotes combustion reactions and thus decreases of CH

_{4}amount at the syngas [54,68] final products. Figure 6 presents the variation of the equivalence ratio (ER) and the percentage mole fractions of the syngas at a gasification temperature of 1500 K, pressure of 20 bar, regenerator effectiveness of 95%, gasifier efficiency of 95%, moisture content of 12%, and a produced amount of 5 kg/s syngas. The influence of the significant parameter, ER, is displayed and observed.

_{2}and H

_{2}O vapor formation increase with the increase in the ER, while the formation of CO

_{2}, CH

_{4}, H

_{2,}and CO exhibited decreases upon increasing the ER. At the optimum ER, the H

_{2}mole fraction depicted a value of 1.25%, 0.85% of CO, and 10.50% of CH

_{4}, for a lower heating value of 38 MJ/kg syngas. The highest value of the syngas composition is depicted by N

_{2}since air is the gasification medium. Although a higher syngas energy content is observed, the amount of N

_{2}in the produced gas could be reduced by using steam or oxygen as oxidizing agents [11].

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

T | Temperature | (K) |

S | Entropy | (kJ/kg·K) |

P | Pressure | (kPa) |

${\mathrm{r}}_{\mathrm{P}}$ | Compression Ratio | - |

$\mathsf{\gamma}$ | Specific Heat Ratio | - |

${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{C}}$ | Isentropic Compressor Efficiency | - |

${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{g}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{f}}$ | Gasifier Efficiency | - |

${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{S}}$ | Compressor Isentropic Temperature | (K) |

${\dot{\mathrm{W}}}_{\mathrm{C}}$ | Specific Compressor Work | (MW) |

${\dot{\mathrm{m}}}_{\mathrm{a}}$ | Air Mass | (kgair) |

${\dot{\mathrm{m}}}_{\mathrm{f}}$ | Fuel Mass | (kg·fuel) |

${\dot{\mathrm{m}}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ | Gas Mass | (kg·gas) |

${\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{h}}$ | Gasifier Stoichiometric Air Flow Rate | (kg air/kg dry fuel) |

CC | Combustion Chamber | - |

ER | Equivalence Ratio | - |

RGT | Regenerative Gas Turbine | - |

IBG | Integrated Biomass Gasification | - |

Mech | Mechanical | - |

Gen | Generator | - |

EES | Engineering Equation Solver | - |

${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{x}}$ | Combustor Inlet Temperature | (K) |

$\Delta {\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{C}}$ | Combustor Pressure Drop | (bar) |

${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{C}}$ | Combustor Efficiency | - |

$\mathsf{\epsilon}$ | Regenerator Effectiveness | - |

${\dot{\mathrm{W}}}_{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}$ | Turbine Shaft Work | (MW) |

${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{T}}$ | Turbine Efficiency | - |

${\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ | Syngas Mole Fraction | - |

${\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}$ | GT Power | (MW) |

${\dot{\mathrm{Q}}}_{\mathrm{a}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{d}}$ | Heat Supplied | (kW) |

${\mathrm{C}}_{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{a}}}$ | Heat Capacity of Air | (kJ/kg·K) |

${\mathrm{C}}_{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{f}}}$ | Heat Capacity of Fuel | (kJ/kg·K) |

${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{P}\mathrm{g}}$ | Heat Capacity of Flue Gas | (kJ/kg·K) |

${\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{f}\mathrm{a}}$ | Gasifier Actual Air Flow Rate | (kg air) |

ATM | Atmospheric | - |

HHV | Higher Heating Value | (kJ/kg) |

LHV | Lower HeatingValue | (kJ/kg) |

TIT | Turbine Inlet Temperature | (K) |

ASH | Ash Content | (wt%) |

HR | Heat Rate | (MW) |

SFC | Specific Fuel Consumption | (kg/kW·hr) |

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**Figure 2.**Variation of the equivalence ratio with gasifier’s biomass mass flow rate at different Wood Chip syngas rates.

**Figure 3.**Variation of biomass moisture content with RGT thermal efficiency at different gasification pressures.

**Figure 5.**Effect of the equivalence ratio on the RGT thermal efficiency for different gasification temperatures.

**Figure 7.**Effect of biomass moisture content on the gasifier’s airflow rate at different gasification temperatures.

**Figure 8.**Variation of biomass moisture content with the gasifier’s airflow rate at different gasification pressures.

**Figure 9.**Variation of gasifier efficiency with biomass flow rate at different Wood Chip syngas rates.

**Figure 10.**Variation of equivalence ratio with the specific fuel consumption at different gasification temperatures.

Proximate Analysis (wt%) | Ultimate Analysis (wt%) | Lower Value of Heat (kJ/kg) | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Water | Ash | Volatile | Fixed Carbon | C | H | O | N | S | |

37.88 | 1.43 | 68.49 | 30.08 | 48 | 6 | 44 | 0.40 | - | 19,094.94 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Abdalla, M.E.; Abdalla, S.A.; Taqvi, S.A.A.; Naqvi, S.R.; Chen, W.-H. Investigation of Biomass Integrated Air Gasification Regenerative Gas Turbine Power Plants. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030741

**AMA Style**

Abdalla ME, Abdalla SA, Taqvi SAA, Naqvi SR, Chen W-H. Investigation of Biomass Integrated Air Gasification Regenerative Gas Turbine Power Plants. *Energies*. 2022; 15(3):741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030741

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Abdalla, Momin Elhadi, Salah Ahmed Abdalla, Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi, Salman Raza Naqvi, and Wei-Hsin Chen. 2022. "Investigation of Biomass Integrated Air Gasification Regenerative Gas Turbine Power Plants" *Energies* 15, no. 3: 741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030741