# Optimal Power Sharing in Microgrids Using the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Problem Formulation

#### 2.1. ABC Algorithm

#### ABC Algorithm Iteration Steps

## 3. Mathematical Modeling

#### 3.1. Hybrid Wind/PV/Battery Storage/Gas Turbine

#### 3.1.1. Wind Energy System

#### 3.1.2. PV Energy System

#### 3.1.3. Battery Storage

## 4. Mathematical Modeling of the Proposed Approach

#### 4.1. Microgrids’ Net Load

#### 4.2. Energy Management Strategy

#### 4.3. Microgrid Energy Sharing Problem

## 5. Power Balance

#### Objective Function

## 6. Simulations and Results Analysis

## 7. Conclusions and Future Work

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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References | Solar | WT | FC | CHP | EES | Biomass | Hydro | Tidal |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[21] | ✓ | ✓ | ||||||

[22] | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

[23] | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

[24] | ✓ | |||||||

[25] | ✓ | |||||||

[26] | ✓ | |||||||

[27] | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

[28] | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

[29,30,31] | ✓ |

**Table 2.**PV panel parameters. Reproduced from [49], the (Journal of Energy storage): 2021.

Parameters | Values | Unit |
---|---|---|

G_{o} | 1000 | W/m^{2} |

µ | 20 | % |

T_{M,O} | 25 | °C |

NOCT | 44 | °C |

Π_{PV} | 0 | Cent/kWh |

**Table 3.**Cost data. Reproduced from [49], the (Journal of Energy Storage): 2021.

Parameters | Values | Unit |
---|---|---|

P_{gas} | 5 | Cent/kWh |

P_{MG} | 15.75 | Cent/kWh |

P_{Dis} | 15.3 | Cent/kWh |

P_{B} | 3 | Cent/kWh |

P_{p} | 40 | Cent/kWh |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ullah, K.; Jiang, Q.; Geng, G.; Rahim, S.; Khan, R.A.
Optimal Power Sharing in Microgrids Using the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 1067.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031067

**AMA Style**

Ullah K, Jiang Q, Geng G, Rahim S, Khan RA.
Optimal Power Sharing in Microgrids Using the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. *Energies*. 2022; 15(3):1067.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031067

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ullah, Kalim, Quanyuan Jiang, Guangchao Geng, Sahar Rahim, and Rehan Ali Khan.
2022. "Optimal Power Sharing in Microgrids Using the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm" *Energies* 15, no. 3: 1067.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031067