Real-Time Experimental Monitoring for Water Absorption Evolution Behaviors of Sandstone in Mogao Grottoes, China
2. Experiment and Procedures
2.1. Real-Time Monitoring Experimental System and Procedures
- Firstly, open the rear operation interface of the test box, inject water into each water storage bucket to three-quarters of the volume, and fill the connecting pipe.
- Secondly, open the valve on the water inlet of the pressureless water contactor to fill the water storage area of the pressureless water contactor.
- Thirdly, the glass mold (no water absorption) with the same diameter as the experimental non pressure rock sample is placed on the support surface of one non pressure water contactor, and three pressureless rock samples are placed on the support surface of three pressureless water contactors. The water absorption end of the pressureless rock sample contacts the water surface of the water storage area, and the water absorption process of the pressureless rock sample begins.
- Finally, close the observation window, turn on the computer for data acquisition, collect the reading information on each electronic balance and temperature and humidity sensor at any time, and automatically draw the test chart after summary and analysis to record the process of adsorbed water of each rock sample.
2.2. Microstructure and Components of Sandstone Samples in Mogao Grottoes, China
- XRD experimental results of sandstone samples
- SEM experimental results of sandstone samples
- Mercury intrusion test results
3. Results and Analysis for Interaction Behaviors between Water and Sandstone
- The physical experimental system for real-time experimental monitoring for water absorption evolution behaviors is developed. This experimental system simulates three modes of rock sample water absorption process under the action of capillary, gravity and hydrostatic pressure, and accurately estimates the water absorption quality of rock samples, environmental temperature and humidity, in real time.
- The effects of water evaporation on the water absorption quality of the rock samples are evaluated quantitatively and accurately. The actual water absorption of the rock samples should be the difference between the amount of water reduction measured by the balance and the amount of water evaporation. The quantitative value of water in rock mass is measured by the developed experiments.
- The water absorption process of sandstone in Mogao Grottoes, China, under capillary action is simulated by a non-pressure water absorption experiment. The water absorption characteristic curve of the rock samples can be fitted by exponential function, and it shows that the water absorption increases rapidly in the initial stage, then slowly increases, and finally tends to be stable. These results can provide reference for evaluating hydration and protecting rock mass.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Minerals (%)||Clay Minerals (%)|
|Quartz||Potash Feldspar||Soda Feldspar||Calcite||Dolomite||Clay Minerals||Illite||Kaolinite||Chlorite|
|Porosity (%)||Specific Surface Area (m2/g)||Volume Median Pore Diameter (nm)||Area Median Pore Diameter (nm)||Mean Pore Diameter (nm)||Bulk Density (g/mL)||Skeleton Density (g/mL)|
|Group||Sample||Diameter d (mm)||Length l (mm)||Dried Mass before Test M1 (g)|
|Sample||Fitting Parameters||Sample||Fitting Parameters|
|Water Quality Evaporated |
|Water Quality Reduced |
|Imbibition Measured Automatically|
|Dried Mass before Test|
|Hydrous Mass |
|Imbibition Measured Manually M3 (g)||Imbibition Error|
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Hao, N.; Wang, Y.; Wu, X.; Duan, Y.; Li, P.; He, M. Real-Time Experimental Monitoring for Water Absorption Evolution Behaviors of Sandstone in Mogao Grottoes, China. Energies 2022, 15, 8504. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228504
Hao N, Wang Y, Wu X, Duan Y, Li P, He M. Real-Time Experimental Monitoring for Water Absorption Evolution Behaviors of Sandstone in Mogao Grottoes, China. Energies. 2022; 15(22):8504. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228504Chicago/Turabian Style
Hao, Nai, Yongliang Wang, Xiaochong Wu, Yifeng Duan, Panshun Li, and Manchao He. 2022. "Real-Time Experimental Monitoring for Water Absorption Evolution Behaviors of Sandstone in Mogao Grottoes, China" Energies 15, no. 22: 8504. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228504