A Review on Heat Extraction Devices for CPVT Systems with Active Liquid Cooling
Abstract
:1. Introduction
1.1. Utilization of Solar Energy
1.2. Cooling of PV Cells
2. Concentrating Photovoltaic—Thermal Systems
2.1. Concentrator
2.2. Photovoltaic Cells
2.3. Heat Extraction Device
3. Heat Extraction Devices with MacroScale Channels/Ducts
3.1. Rectangular Ducts
3.2. Circular Ducts
3.3. Triangular Ducts
3.4. Metal Block with Inner Channels
3.5. Serpentine Ducts
3.6. Flow between Two Flat Plates
3.7. Other Designs
4. Heat Extraction Devices with Microchannels
4.1. SingleLayered Microchannel Devices
4.2. MultiLayered Microchannel Devices
4.3. Microchannel with Internal Features
4.4. Microchannel with Pin Fins
4.5. Other Designs
5. Summary
 The design of the heat extraction device in a CPVT system should be adjusted to the particular thermal and electrical requirements;
 Microchannel heat receivers should be used when high heat dissipation is required, which means CPVT systems with high and ultrahigh concentration ratios;
 The thinner the fins in the microchannels are, the more efficient the heat transfer and the higher pressure losses;
 Internal features may be introduced to microchannels, but they require a low velocity of HTF;
 Heat extraction devices equipped with macroscale channels are suitable for CPVT systems with low and medium concentration ratios;
 The length of the linear heat receiver should be adjusted to the required outlet temperature of the HTF, taking into consideration a temperature gradient along the receiver, which leads to mechanical stress over the receiver body;
 Straight macrochannels provide the lowest pressure drop;
 Rectangular channels are accompanied by hot spots and stagnation zones close to the right angles, contrary to the macrochannels with a circular or elliptical crosssection.
 An increase in the area of heat transfer in macroscale channels may be provided by the application of internal features such as ribs, fins, etc. Caution: They increase the pressure drop and parasitic load;
 Insulation of all walls which are not covered by PV cells increases the electrical efficiency but negatively influences the thermal performance;
 The area of walls that are not collecting the concentrated solar radiation should be limited to reduce thermal losses, e.g., by the usage of semicircular pipes;
 The inlet of the HTF should be placed near the location with the highest irradiance, such as the middle of a PV cell in pointfocus systems;
 Additional PV cells may be placed on the walls that do not collect the concentrated solar radiation to increase the electrical output;
 Electrical output may also be increased by the application of thermoelectric generators between the heat receiver and PV cells, but this configuration limits the cooling efficiency of PV cells;
 The application of nanofluids instead of pure water increases the thermal conductivity of HTF and induces higher pressure losses when the concentration ratio increases;
 The application of antireflective coatings over the heat receiver leads to an increase in the amount of absorbed solar energy;
 The use of glass coatings reduces thermal and optical losses but negatively influences the operation of photovoltaic cells;
 A change in the receiver material from aluminum to copper may be not beneficial;
 Coupled pre and postillumination methods of cooling are promising.
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Advantages  Disadvantages 

High thermal efficiency  Nonhomogenous irradiance distribution 
Medium and hightemperature thermal output  Significant optical losses 
High electrical efficiency *  Usage of only direct irradiation 
Low elevated temperature of PV cells  Possibility of PV cells overheating/damage 
Reduced area of PV cells  High complexity of the system 
Lower investment costs in PV cells *  Requirement for active cooling 
Wide range of applications  Parasitic load connected with active cooling 
Ease of integration with other devices  Limited maximum temperature of HTF 
Cogeneration, trigeneration or polygeneration unit 
Concentration  Low  Medium  High  UltraHigh 

CR [sun]  <10  10–100  100–2000  >2000 
Concentrator  Compound Parabolic Vtrough  Linear Fresnel Reflector Parabolic Trough Linear Fresnel Lens  Parabolic dish Central Receiver System Fresnel Lens Nonimaging dish concentrator  Parabolic dish+ Compound Parabolic Central Receiver System+ Compound Parabolic Fresnel Lens+ Compound Parabolic Nonimaging dish concentrator+ Compound Parabolic 
Irradiation utilization  Direct/Partially diffusive  Direct  Direct  Direct 
Cooling requirement  Passive  Passive/Active  Passive/Active  Active 
Tracking  No/Maybe  Yes  Yes  Yes 
Heat Transfer Fluid  Advantages  Disadvantages 

water  High heat capacity and thermal conductivity Widely available and inexpensive Environmentally friendly  Upper temperature limit 100 °C Lower temperature limit 4 °C Causes corrosion in hydraulic system Threat of Legionnaires disease 
nanofluids  Enhanced thermal conductivity Higher thermal efficiency than water  Bad performance in turbulent flows Higher pressure drop than for water Causes corrosion Higher costs 
diathermic oil  High working temperatures (>100 °C) Enhanced thermal efficiency  Significant thermal inertia Reduced thermal conductivity Higher pressure drop than for water Not safe for environment 
Ref.  Receiver  Heat Transfer Fluid  Concentrator  PV  Efficiency, %  Studies  Highlights  

Description  Material  Type  CR  Electrical  Thermal  Total  
[8]  Rectangular channel between two flat plates    1–10% Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles 99–90% water  Parabolic dish  88.3  multicrystalline silicon      45  Numerical  Nanofluids allow to control the temperature in a CPV receiver 
[110]  water      20–45  Experimental, Numerical  Cooling system enhances the electricalpower 2.5 times compared to a non concentrated PV. Inlet should be located in the upper part of receiver, outlet counter side.  
[9]  pipes placed under the plate, insulated at the bottom    glycolwater  Fresnel lens/Parabolic dish  600–900  triplejunction  20  67    Numerical  The outlet fluid temperature is 90C and allows one to use an AHP with CPVT system 
[10]  rectangular tube, insulated at the sides and bottom  aluminum  Water  Linear Fresnel lenses  80  triplejunction  34.75      Numerical  System produced 5.1 MWh of thermal energy and 14.2 MWh of electricity 
[15]  parallel circular channels arrangedat equal spacing throughout the heat exchanger with common inlet andoutlet ports. TEGs between receiver and PV cells.  aluminum  water  Parabolic trough    monocrystalline silicon  6.76  47.35    Experimental, Numerical  TEGs improve the electrical efficiency by 7.46% 
[21]  triangular geometry receiver  aluminum  water  Parabolic trough  14.8  Backcontact monocrystalline silicon  8.0  37.7    Numerical  Upgrade of CT to CPVT required the change in receiver duct shape from circular to triangular 
[42]  triangular prismshaped duct with PV panels on two sides and five cooling tubes beneath each panel, insulation on the third wall  copper  70% wt. glycol 30% wt. water  linear Fresnel  15  monocrystalline silicon  12.8  58.0  71.8  numerical  Designed system is able to provide heat and cool for residential building. Electrical energy has to be provided from the grid. 
[75]  insulated cooling plate    water  parabolic dish  400  triplejunction  20  >60  >80  Numerical  
[76]  rectangular channel from bent steel sheet under the PV cells  steel  water  Vtrough    polycrystalline  15  20  35  Experimental, Theoretical  Design needs improvement in heat transfer and insulation to reduce thermal losses. 
[77]  Rectangular pipe    water  parabolic trough  14.5  Crystalline silicon  10.2  16    experimental, numerical  Further work should be focused on geometry optimization 
[78]  thinwalled rectangular channel insulated at the sides and bottom  aluminum  water  Compound parabolic  4  Polycrystalline silicon      71  Experimental, numerical  Elimination of multiple reflections enhances the CPVT performance 
[99]  rectangular channel  aluminum  water  compound parabolic  4  Polycrystalline silicon  13  55    experimental, numerical  The steadystate model cannot predict the thermal performance in cases of rapid changes of solar radiation 
[79]  rectangular tube    Water  Linear Fresnel lenses  25  monocrystalline silicon  11  56    Experimental  AR coatings and lamination of Fresnel lenses could improve the optical efficiency of the system. 
[80]  square pipe, insulated at the sides and bottom  copper  water  Miniature compound parabolic    Silicon  9.5–10.6  31.2–37.2    Experimental, numerical  miniature CPVT system has low heat losses so it could produce mediumtemperature heat 
[81]  rectangular channel, with three wall insulation  copper  0.2% Cu nanoparticles99.8% water  Parabolic trough  5–30  Triplejunction        numerical  Nanofluid improves the thermal efficiency about 15% and electrical efficiency about 0.2%. Presence of insulation increases the thermal efficiency about 2%. 
[82]  water  20        numerical  Temperature gradient and hot spots lead to an average drop in thermal efficiency about 6%.  
[83]  insulated flat receiver with circular pipe    5% nanoparticles CuO 95% thermal oil (Syltherm 800)  Parabolic trough  10  Monocrystalline silicon  6.6  46.84    numerical  nanofluid leads to enhancement in thermal and electrical performance 
[84]  Insulated tubular duct  Aluminum alloy  water  Parabolic trough  20  silicon, Supercell, GaAs cell  GaAs 9.88 Silicon 7.51  GaAs 49.84Silicon 42.4    experimental  The electrical efficiency is the best for GaAs cell. CPVT system with silicon cells is economically viable. 
[85]  30.8  Supercell 3.63%, GaAs 8.94%, silicon 3.67%  Supercell 45.17%, GaAs 41.69%, silicon 34.53%    experimental  The width of the solar cells should be adjusted to the width of focal spot to fully utilize concentrating irradiance.  
[86]  circular pipe  copper  water  Three variants: hyperbolic trumpet, Vtrough, compound parabolic  1.94  silicon  18.44–18.59      numerical  All concentrators can generate almost the same electrical power. 
[87]  tube  copper  water  parabolic trough  90  triplejunction        Experimental, numerical  The outlet fluid temperature above 80 °C allows integration of the sorption chiller. 
[90]      water        6.1%  69.6%    Numerical  Without the glass cover, the optical losses are reduced but the thermal losses increase. 
[91]  wedge receiver with angle of 20° between the two receiver copper plates.  copper  20% ethylene glycol 80% water  Parabolic trough  2  monocrystalline silicon  8%  59%    Experimental  design concept reduced the thermal stress and high radiation intensity over PV cells 
[92]  Circular tube with internal fins mounted under the flat plate absorber. Back and sides insulated and encased.  aluminum  Water Antifreeze additions  Parabolic trough  37  monocrystalline silicon  11  58  69  Experimental  Internal fins enhance the heat transfer rate. Illumination nonuniformities over the receiver surface have a significant effect on the overall electrical performance. 
[93]  Flat plate with circular, grooved tube on the rear side  aluminum  water  pointfocus Fresnel lens  1090  triplejunction  30  30  >60  Experimental  
[94]  28  54  >80  Experimental, numerical  Mainly the direct irradiance determines the electrical and thermal performance of the system.  
[95]  equilateral triangle duct with TEG modules and PV cells on two sides and thermal insulation on the backside  iron  water  parabolic trough  8.34  monocrystalline silicon  With glass cover  experimental  Presence of glass cover increases the thermal efficiency and decreases the electrical efficiency. Nonuniform irradiation distribution through receiver decreases the electrical efficiency of PV cells.  
4.83  46.16  50.99  
Without glass cover  
4.94  42.36  47.30  
[96]        numerical  Optimum reflector aperture width 1.6–2.2 m and optimum apex angle 80°–120°.  
[97]  Triangular duct with PV cells on two sides  aluminum  water  Parabolic trough  7.8  Monocrystalline silicon  6.4      experimental  Irradiation intensity is an essential factor determining the amount of generated energy 
[98]  linear triangular receiver with circular fluid channel inside    water  parabolic trough  110  triplejunction  20–25  60–65    Numerical  Insulating the top surface is recommended to increase the electrical efficiency 
[100]  Flat plate with eight channels with different crosssections: ellipse, rectangle, circle, square  aluminum  water  a combination of involute, circular and parabola shape    Monocrystalline silicon  17.8–19.0      numerical  elliptical channels ensure the most uniform distribution of the temperature 
[102]  Flat plate with parallel elliptic channels, insulated. TEGs between receiver and PV cells.    0.5% graphene 99.5% water      silicon cell        Numerical  TEGs improve the electrical efficiency by 5–10% 
[103]  Rectangular tube with circular inner channel, bend in U shape to provide counterflow  aluminum  water  low profile linearparabolic  20  monocrystalline silicon    64    experimental, numerical  The maximal outlet temperature is limited by the Ushaped geometry of the water channel. Two separate channels may provide higher outlet temperature. 
[104]  Ushaped, two parallel copper tubes which are connected together with rubber tube, insulated  copper  water  Fresnel lenses    triplejunction      76  experimental, numerical  Flow rate allows to control thermal and electrical power. Optimum value was found to be 0.033 kg/s 
[105]  double tubular pipe  aluminum  water  Parabolic trough  8.5  Monocrystalline silicon  8.3  45    experimental  Operating temperature of PV cell is reduced under 60 °C. Electricity production in CPVT system is 4.7–5.2 times higher than for PV 
[106]  Rectangular receiver with 2, 3, 4 or 6 internal channels  aluminum  water  parabolic trough    Monocrystalline silicon  8.45–9.30  59.8–74.2    Numerical  The higher number of pipes, the higher total performance. Rectangular pipes reduce cell temperature by 17 °C 
[107]  Circular pipe in meander configuration  copper  glycolwater  Fresnel lens + kaleidoscope  208.6  triplejunction  23–29      Numerical  kaleidoscope allows to uniform the solar irradiance on the surface of the cell 
[109]  squiredshaped riser tubes surrounded by the metallic substrate and insulated upper wall    six engine oilbased nanofluids  Parabolic dish    triplejunction        numerical  Nanofluids enhance the total efficiency and increase the pressure drop 
[114]  Headerriser structure  copper  water  Concentrated dish  600–800  triplejunction  48  38  85  numerical  Active cooling enhances electrical efficiency of the system and increases the total efficiency up to 85% 
[111]  Dshaped receiver (semi cylindrical tube)  copper  water  parabolic trough  6  monocrystalline silicon  12.39  49.48    analytical, experimental  Cooling efficiency strongly depends on the mass flow rate of the HTF. 
[112]  Cshaped, HTF flows above and below the PV cell. Vacuum between PV cell and upper layer of coolant  glass  2% SiO_{2} nanoparticles98% water    40, 100, 150  Monocrystalline silicon      25.5 (CR = 40), 16.7 (CR = 100) 16.2 (CR = 150)  numerical  Nanofluids significantly enhance the heat transfer 
[113]  Tube bent into spiral shape. Inlet close to the edge, outlet in the middle.  copper  water  Fresnel lens    semitransparent CdTe  2.6–3.4  55–65  Experimental  Usage of red filter above PV cell allows to increase thermal and electrical efficiencies  
[115]  Commercial thermal collector    water  Vtrough  2  Monocrystalline silicon        Experimental, numerical  31.5% increase in electric power due to the active cooling of PV cells in CPVT system 
[116]  Cylindrical receiver with Mshaped internal channel  aluminum  thermal oil  Double parabolic dish  105          Numerical  The reduction of absorber temperature is required 
[117]  Roll bond plate with duct  aluminum  water  parabolic trough  130  triplejunction  10–20  40–60  70  Experimental, numerical  It is possible to increase the operating temperature of PV cell to produce heat at medium temperature (80–90 °C) 
[118]  rectangular channel, insulation on the back and side walls  aluminum  water  Fresnel lens and flat mirrors  5  Monocrystalline silicon  10  56    experimental, numerical  Double optics makes the irradiation distribution over PV cells surface more uniform 
[119]  rectangular duct with insulation on three sides  aluminum  water  Parabolic trough  53    22.2  61.6  83.8  Numerical  Payback time is only 5.6 years 
[120]  Flat plat absorber with circular tube  copper  4–20% TiO_{2} 96–80% water  parabolic trough  15  Supercell, GaAs  Supercell 11.67 15.55  Supercell 68.5 5.93  Supercell 79.12 6.97  Elongation of receiver tube reduces the total efficiency. Nanofluids are more effective for laminar flow. 
Ref.  Receiver  Heat Transfer Fluid  Concentrator  PV  Efficiency, %  Studies  Highlights  

Description  Material  Type  CR  Electrical  Thermal  Total  
[28]  elongated platefin heat sink with microchannels of constant or stepwisevarying width configuration  aluminum  water  parabolic trough  14.3  monocrystalline silicon  6  44  50  experimental  Fins with varying width significantly reduce pumping power 
[30]  Heat sink with pin fins: inline cylindrical, staggered cylindrical, inline conical, and staggered conical  Aluminum/copper  water  Fresnel lens  500–2500  Multijunction      80  numerical  cylindricalshaped pin fins are suitable for CR < 2500, whereas conicalshaped only for CR < 2000. Staggered configuration reduces pressure drop. 
[67]  jet impingement microchannel with varying width of channels    water  Parabolic (primary optics), Kaleidoscope (secondary optics)  537  dummy        experimental  step varying width of the microchannel sections reduce the pressure drop and thermal resistance along the flow, resulting in a uniform temperature distribution. 
[123]  Rectangular with insulated enclosure  aluminum  Water; Al_{2}O_{3} Water/oil      Multijunction        numerical  The thinner fins, the better thermal and hydraulic performance 
[104]  Eight designs of channel configurations: serpentine, parallel, parallel with manifolds, distributor (each type with and without transverse slots)  aluminum  deionized water    40/50          numerical  Distributors provide uniform flow uniformity, surface temperature distribution and lowpressure loss. 
[124]  Heat sink with parallel microchannels immersed in flowing water    water  Fresnel Lens  70, 100, 130  Multijunction/Laser Grooved Buried Contact silicon        Experimental  TEGs enhance the overall output power, but PV performs better when connected directly to the heat sink 
[125]  multiplechannel heat sink with parallel long plate fins    water  Primary: dish concentrator, secondary: array of compound parabolic lenses  1800  Triplejunction  31.8      numerical  Higher number of fins contribute to larger heat transfer area. It is possible to maintain cell temperature below 100° 
[126]  elongated plate heat sink with channels of stepwise decreasing hydraulic diameter  aluminum  water  linear            numerical  The buoyancy in the first heat sink section has a beneficial impact on thermal performance. Enhanced eat transfer due to contractioninduced vortices. 
[128]  stepwise varying width microchannel with fins of different length  Aluminum  water  Fresnel lens  1000  Multijunction  38–40      numerical  Hhigher flow rates and increase in number and length of fins lead to lower thermal resistance and higher pressure drop 
[129]  jet impingement microchannel with varying width of channels. Inlet located under the central part of the receiver.  Aluminum  water  Fresnel lenses  1000  Multijunction  39.7  60.4    numerical  Location of inlet under the central part of the receiver provides a higher reduction in the maximum temperature 
[130]  treeshaped channel    water    50  Silicon        numerical  Tree shaped channel provides 10 °C lower temperature of PV cell than straight channel 
[134]  Multilayered heat sink with parallel flow  aluminum  water  primary and secondary reflector  529  triplejunction  9.8      experimental  Heat sink with 3layers provided an increase in electrical power of 9.4% compared to the 1layer 
[135]  Five configurations of microchannel: wide rectangular, singlelayer parallelflow, singlelayer counterflow, doublelayer parallelflow, doublelayer counterflow  aluminum  water  linear Fresnel lens  20  polycrystalline silicon        numerical  The best design for PV cooling: singlelayer heat sink with parallelflow. The worst design: singlelayer heat sink with counterflow 
[137]  Microchannels with forward triangular ribs on sidewalls in aligned and offset distribution  silicon  water  Fresnel lens  1000  Multijunction  40      numerical  Forward triangular ribs installed on the sidewalls enhance the heat transfer capability 
[138]  Heat sink with Round Pins and Straight Fins  aluminum  water    500  triplejunction  39.5      Experimental, numerical  The heat sink with straight fins keeps the PV surface temperature lower than that of a sink with round pins 
[140]  Three layers: the microchannels, the manifolds, and the plenum chamber with ducts  copper, steel  water    ≤98  silicon        experimental  Multilayer design maximizes the contact area between the microchannels and the cell surface. A short flow path reduces pressure drop. 
[141]  porous channel collector with rectangular crosssection  Aluminum foam  Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles water  Parabolic trough    Monocrystalline silicon  18.8–19.7    62–73  numerical  
[142]  Heat sink mounted on the circular pipe  copper  water  Fresnel Lens  784  Multijunction  36.5  49.5  68.7  Experimental, numerical  Numerical model gives higher efficiencies than experimental tests due to the heat losses associated to experiment. 
[143]  Rectangular duct with aspect ratio 8, 106 parallel microchannels  aluminum  water    20  polycrystalline silicon  17.5  70.8    numerical  Aspect ratio eight provides maximum heat transfer coefficient for the rectangular ducts. For CR > 3.5 cooling system is recommended. 
Discussed Aspect  Macroscale Channels  Microscale Channels 

Shape  Straight ducts with rectangular or triangular crosssection, Metal blocks with internal channels, Serpentine channels arrangement, Flow between two flat plates  Single or multilayered Microchannels, constant or varying spacing between fins and fin thickness, Various shapes of pinfins 
Heat transfer fluid  Usually: Water, Nanofluids, Water—glycol solutions, Rare: Thermal Oils  Usually: Water, Nanofluids, Rare: Thermal oils 
Concentration Ratio  Usually low and medium  Usually high and ultrahigh 
Accompanying concentrator  Vtrough, compound parabolic, linear Fresnel lenses  Parabolic trough, parabolic dish, Fresnel lenses, presence of secondary optics such as a kaleidoscope 
Accompanying PV cell  Usually crystalline Silicon cells, but also: thinfilm cells, multijunction cells  Usually multijunction cells, but also: crystalline silicon cells, thinfilm cells, 
Pressure drop  Strongly depends on the shape and length of the channels  Very high 
Manufacturing  Simple constructions based on commerciallyavailable components  Requires specified machines and processes 
Advantages 


Disadvantages 


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PapisFrączek, K.; Sornek, K. A Review on Heat Extraction Devices for CPVT Systems with Active Liquid Cooling. Energies 2022, 15, 6123. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176123
PapisFrączek K, Sornek K. A Review on Heat Extraction Devices for CPVT Systems with Active Liquid Cooling. Energies. 2022; 15(17):6123. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176123
Chicago/Turabian StylePapisFrączek, Karolina, and Krzysztof Sornek. 2022. "A Review on Heat Extraction Devices for CPVT Systems with Active Liquid Cooling" Energies 15, no. 17: 6123. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176123