Modular multilevel converter-based battery energy storage systems (MMC-based BESS) can play an important role when applied to power systems, for example, stabilizing and improving power quality. The integration of batteries in an MMC is usually performed in two ways: single-stage (SS) and two-stage (TS) (i.e., with dc/dc converter). Different references discuss the control strategies, sizing methodologies, and the advantages/drawbacks of these approaches. However, a deep comparison of these topologies is still missing in the literature. Thus, benchmarking SS and TS approaches is provided in this work. The battery current spectrum, the battery lifetime, the converter power losses, and the total costs are evaluated for both approaches. In addition, energy oversizing due to rounding is an important figure of merit since batteries account for a large amount of the costs. The case study is evaluated considering commercial battery racks (standard solution) and battery cells (customized solution). For the case studies, different insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) models and states of charge (SOC
) ranges are considered. The system under review is a 10.9 MVA/5.76 MWh connected to a 13.8 kV power system. This system aims to perform a time-shift for an industry. In an analysis to optimize the costs of a project that evaluates several variables, the best configuration option is found in the most balanced option. In this sense, when balancing costs in project sizing, power losses, and battery replacement, the optimal design is the SS approach in the customized solution.
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