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Assessing Crop Water Requirements and a Case for Renewable-Energy-Powered Pumping System for Wheat, Cotton, and Sorghum Crops in Sudan
Article

Assessment of Wind and Solar Hybrid Energy for Agricultural Applications in Sudan

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur A.K. 10250, Pakistan
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College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mechanical, Biomedical and Design Engineering, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
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Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Energy and Thermofluid Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt 500102, Nigeria
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Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum 51111, Sudan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Md Shamim Ahamed, Muhammad Sultan, Redmond R. Shamshiri, Muhammad Wakil Shahzad and Gianpiero Colangelo
Energies 2022, 15(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010005
Received: 10 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 17 December 2021 / Published: 21 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Systems and Applications in Agriculture)
In addition to zero-carbon generation, the plummeting cost of renewable energy sources (RES) is enabling the increased use of distributed-generation sources. Although the RES appear to be a cheaper source of energy, without the appropriate design of the RES with a true understanding of the nature of the load, they can be an unreliable and expensive source of energy. Limited research has been aimed at designing small-scale hybrid energy systems for irrigation pumping systems, and these studies did not quantify the water requirement, or in turn the energy required to supply the irrigation water. This paper provides a comprehensive feasibility analysis of an off-grid hybrid renewable energy system for the design of a water-pumping system for irrigation applications in Sudan. A systematic and holistic framework combined with a techno-economic optimization analysis for the planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for small-scale irrigation water-pumping systems is presented. Different hybridization cases of solar photovoltaic, wind turbine and battery storage at 12 different sites in Sudan are simulated, evaluated, and compared, considering the crop water requirement for different crops, the borehole depth, and the stochasticity of renewable energy resources. Soil, weather, and climatic data from 12 different sites in Sudan were used for the case studies, with the key aim to find the most robust and reliable solution with the lowest system cost. The results of the case studies suggest that the selection of the system is highly dependent on the cost, the volatility of the wind speed, solar radiation, and the size of the system; at present, hybridization is not the primary option at most of sites, with the exception of two. However, with the reduction in price of wind technology, the possibility of hybrid generation will rise. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid renewable energy; techno-economic optimization; net present cost; HOMER Pro® hybrid renewable energy; techno-economic optimization; net present cost; HOMER Pro®
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, Z.A.; Imran, M.; Altamimi, A.; Diemuodeke, O.E.; Abdelatif, A.O. Assessment of Wind and Solar Hybrid Energy for Agricultural Applications in Sudan. Energies 2022, 15, 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010005

AMA Style

Khan ZA, Imran M, Altamimi A, Diemuodeke OE, Abdelatif AO. Assessment of Wind and Solar Hybrid Energy for Agricultural Applications in Sudan. Energies. 2022; 15(1):5. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Zafar A., Muhammad Imran, Abdullah Altamimi, Ogheneruona E. Diemuodeke, and Amged O. Abdelatif. 2022. "Assessment of Wind and Solar Hybrid Energy for Agricultural Applications in Sudan" Energies 15, no. 1: 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010005

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