Next Article in Journal
A Coupled-Inductor Interleaved LLC Resonant Converter for Wide Operation Range
Previous Article in Journal
Optimal Solar Plant Site Identification Using GIS and Remote Sensing: Framework and Case Study
 
 
Article

Energy-Optimal Structures of HVAC System for Cleanrooms as a Function of Key Constant Parameters and External Climate

Institute of Environmental Engineering and Building Installations, Poznan University of Technology, Pl. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Alonso González Lezcano and Fabrizio Ascione
Energies 2022, 15(1), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010313
Received: 24 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 27 December 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
This article presents approximating relations defining energy-optimal structures of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system for cleanrooms as a function of key constant parameters and energy-optimal control algorithms for various options of heat recovery and external climates. The annual unit primary energy demand of the HVAC system for thermodynamic air treatment was adopted as the objective function. Research was performed for wide representative variability ranges of key constant parameters: cleanliness class—Cs (ISO5÷ISO8), unit cooling loads—q˙j (100 ÷ 500) W/m2 and percentage of outdoor air—αo (5 ÷ 100)%. HVAC systems are described with vectors x¯ with coordinates defined by constant parameters and decision variables, and the results are presented in the form of approximating functions illustrating zones of energy-optimal structures of the HVAC system x¯* = f (Cs, q˙j, αo). In the optimization procedure, the type of heat recovery as an element of optimal structures of the HVAC system and algorithms of energy-optimal control were defined based on an objective function and simulation models. It was proven that using heat recovery is profitable only for HVAC systems without recirculation and with internal recirculation (savings of 5 ÷ 66%, depending on the type of heat recovery and the climate), while it is not profitable (or generates losses) for HVAC systems with external recirculation or external and internal recirculation at the same time. View Full-Text
Keywords: cleanrooms; ventilation; air conditioning; energy consumption; optimization cleanrooms; ventilation; air conditioning; energy consumption; optimization
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Porowski, M.; Jakubiak, M. Energy-Optimal Structures of HVAC System for Cleanrooms as a Function of Key Constant Parameters and External Climate. Energies 2022, 15, 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010313

AMA Style

Porowski M, Jakubiak M. Energy-Optimal Structures of HVAC System for Cleanrooms as a Function of Key Constant Parameters and External Climate. Energies. 2022; 15(1):313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Porowski, Mieczysław, and Monika Jakubiak. 2022. "Energy-Optimal Structures of HVAC System for Cleanrooms as a Function of Key Constant Parameters and External Climate" Energies 15, no. 1: 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010313

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop