Next Article in Journal
Ammonia Emissions in SI Engines Fueled with LPG
Next Article in Special Issue
Bifacial Photovoltaics 2021: Status, Opportunities and Challenges
Previous Article in Journal
Do Environment-Related Policy Instruments and Technologies Facilitate Renewable Energy Generation? Exploring the Contextual Evidence from Developed Economies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Size- and Surface-Dependent Solubility of Cadmium Telluride in Aqueous Solutions
Comment published on 28 May 2021, see Energies 2021, 14(11), 3150.
Article

Leaching via Weak Spots in Photovoltaic Modules

1
Institute for Photovoltaics and Research Center SCoPE, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality, and Solid Waste Management, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emmanuel Kymakis
Energies 2021, 14(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030692
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
This study identifies unstable and soluble layers in commercial photovoltaic modules during 1.5 year long-term leaching. Our experiments cover modules from all major photovoltaic technologies containing solar cells from crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). These technologies cover more than 99.9% of the world market. We cut out module pieces of 5 × 5 cm2 in size from these modules and leached them in water-based solutions with pH 4, pH 7, and pH 11, in order to simulate different environmental conditions. Unstable layers open penetration paths for water-based solutions; finally, the leaching results in delamination. In CdTe containing module pieces, the CdTe itself and the back contact are unstable and highly soluble. In CIGS containing module pieces, all of the module layers are more or less soluble. In the case of c-Si module pieces, the cells’ aluminum back contact is unstable. Module pieces from a-Si technology also show a soluble back contact. Long-term leaching leads to delamination in all kinds of module pieces; delamination depends strongly on the pH value of the solutions. For low pH-values, the time dependent leaching is well described by an exponential saturation behavior and a leaching time constant. The time constant depends on the pH, as well as on accelerating conditions such as increased temperature and/or agitation. Our long-term experiments clearly demonstrate that it is possible to leach out all, or at least a large amount, of the (toxic) elements from the photovoltaic modules. It is therefore not sufficient to carry out experiments just over 24 h and to conclude on the stability and environmental impact of photovoltaic modules. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaching; long term; photovoltaic modules; delamination; solubility leaching; long term; photovoltaic modules; delamination; solubility
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nover, J.; Zapf-Gottwick, R.; Feifel, C.; Koch, M.; Werner, J.H. Leaching via Weak Spots in Photovoltaic Modules. Energies 2021, 14, 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030692

AMA Style

Nover J, Zapf-Gottwick R, Feifel C, Koch M, Werner JH. Leaching via Weak Spots in Photovoltaic Modules. Energies. 2021; 14(3):692. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030692

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nover, Jessica, Renate Zapf-Gottwick, Carolin Feifel, Michael Koch, and Juergen H. Werner 2021. "Leaching via Weak Spots in Photovoltaic Modules" Energies 14, no. 3: 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030692

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop