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Review

A Review on Management of End of Life Tires (ELTs) and Alternative Uses of Textile Fibers

1
Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH)/Chemical Process & Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), 4th km Ptolemais—Mpodosakeiou Hospital (Region of Kouri), 502 00 Ptolemais, Greece
2
ECOELASTIKA SA, Ecological Tire Management, 15125 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2021, 14(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030571
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Recycling and Energy Use of Waste)
Annually, approximately 3 billion tires are commercially transacted worldwide each year and an equivalent amount is disposed of by the end of their life. Despite the increase in the life of tires and the global economic and pandemic crisis, the number of discarded tires is going to rise further due to the increasing demand for vehicles worldwide (approximately 5 billion tires by the end of 2030). The obsolete methods of tire disposal, including landfill, burning, etc., are a responsible for environmental issues (harmful substances production, air and soil pollution) and for the transmission of various diseases. Nowadays, approximately 70% of the total tires at the end of their life (ELTs) is recovered. The largest percentage of the recovered ELTs is intended for energy production or recovery as a fuel in cement industries or can be used for the production of various materials. A significant amount (approximately 95%) of the discarded ELTs can be reused. The products from the processing of ELTs can be fragments of different sizes and types, including: Trimmed rubber (70% by weight), steel wire (5–30% by weight), and fluff or textile fibers (up to 15% by weight). From the aforementioned materials, rubber and steel wires are mainly recovered and used for numerous applications. However, current ways of utilizing these materials will have to adapt or change in the near future, in order to comply with stricter regulations. The purpose of the current study is to sufficiently review recent progress on the management of ELTs, focusing on alternative uses of textile fibers such as additive for sound absorbing materials, bituminous conglomerates, concrete production, plastic materials, soil reinforcement, etc. View Full-Text
Keywords: end of life tires; energy recovery; material recycling; rubber; textile fibers end of life tires; energy recovery; material recycling; rubber; textile fibers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grammelis, P.; Margaritis, N.; Dallas, P.; Rakopoulos, D.; Mavrias, G. A Review on Management of End of Life Tires (ELTs) and Alternative Uses of Textile Fibers. Energies 2021, 14, 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030571

AMA Style

Grammelis P, Margaritis N, Dallas P, Rakopoulos D, Mavrias G. A Review on Management of End of Life Tires (ELTs) and Alternative Uses of Textile Fibers. Energies. 2021; 14(3):571. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grammelis, Panagiotis, Nikolaos Margaritis, Petros Dallas, Dimitrios Rakopoulos, and Georgios Mavrias. 2021. "A Review on Management of End of Life Tires (ELTs) and Alternative Uses of Textile Fibers" Energies 14, no. 3: 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030571

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