The H2020 McSAFER Project: Main Goals, Technical Work Program, and Status
1.1. Challenges for Numerical Tools
1.2. Advanced Tools for Safety Evaluations
1.3. Validation of Numerical Tools
2. McSAFER Partners and Structure
2.1. Project Partners
2.2. McSAFER Structure
3. Main Goals and Content of the Technical Work Packages
3.1. Experimental Investigations and Validation
- Fundamental heat transfer experiments at the COSMOS-H facility using a heated tube in an annular gap and a heated rod bundle (five tubes) of dimensions similar to the ones of SMRs to study CHF phenomena at three different pressure levels (from 5 to 15 MPa) .
- Experiments at the MOTEL facility, which is designed for SMR-relevant tests and includes essential components of SMR, e.g., a helical coil heat exchanger, core, and pressurizer (representative for NuScale). A test series is dedicated to investigate the behavior of the helical steam generator and another one to study the cross-flow phenomena .
- Tests at the HWAT facility including a two-phase heat transfer under forced circulation and the transition to natural convection considering SMR-relevant thermal hydraulic conditions.
- Validation of CFD codes using the experimental data of COSMOS-H, MOTEL, and HWAT.
- Validation of subchannel thermal hydraulic codes with the experimental data obtained with the proposed tests.
- Validation of system thermal hydraulic codes using the test data generated.
- Serie 1: Tests with a single Zircaloy tube in an annular gap of 4 m height. Different CHF tests are foreseen in order to quantify the measurement uncertainty. In addition to sensors for pressure, temperature, and mass flow, imaging measurement techniques is also be used;
- Serie 2: Rod bundle experiments with five Zircaloy tubes arranged in a square geometry with one at the center. A tube length of 1 m has been considered. Only the methods based on the backscattering of light such as Laser Dopper Anemometrie (LDA) are used, since the optical accessibility is limited.
- Forced circulation steady-state tests: measurement of the distribution of the flow with a multi-sensor probe, measurement of the heat transfer under different flow conditions inside the heater riser.
- Forced-to-natural circulation transients in a ca. 8.8 m high closed loop including the riser, a return line and a condenser test section. Transient local flow characteristics, natural circulation stability, and transient local flow characteristics during natural circulation are measured.
- Series 1: MOTEL helical coil steam generator experiments to study the behavior of the helical coil SG, i.e., steady-state heat transfer, temperature distributions along the SG tubes, steady states with different power levels;
- Series 2: MOTEL cross-flow experiments: mixing between subchannels with even and skewed radial power distributions in the core by adjusting the powers of the 12 radial heating regions.
3.2. Multiphysics Core Analysis
- Develop advanced deterministic solvers (SP3-pin-by-pin/subchannel) for improving core analysis achieving higher prediction accuracy, i.e., at the pin-level compared to the traditional lower-fidelity codes (nodal solutions);
- Demonstrate the need for high-fidelity novel multiphysics and multiscale codes to improve the traditional low-fidelity codes and methods which are currently in use by both the industry and regulators for routine simulations;
- Show the appropriateness of the high-fidelity multiphysics solutions based on Monte Carlo methods developed within the McSAFE project as the reference solution for the reduced-order solutions, especially in cases where no experimental data are available;
- Extend the core analysis tools (neutronic, thermal hydraulic, and thermo-mechanics) for the simulation of a SMR core loaded with accident tolerant fuel (ATF).
3.3. Multiscale Reactor Pressure Vessel Analysis
- Selection of appropriate Design Basis Accident (DBA) sequences, e.g., steam line break, boron dilution, and Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS);
- Application of multiscale thermal hydraulic methods, including the coupling of system thermal hydraulic and subchannel codes for the analysis of the RPV.
- Application of novel multiscale thermal hydraulic methods, including the coupling of CFD and system thermal hydraulic codes for the analysis of the RPV.
3.4. Multiscale Plant Analysis
- The selection of the SMR-relevant design basis accidents for the analysis with traditional methods, e.g., steam line break, ATWS, or boron dilution when applicable;
- The analysis of the selected design basis accidents using advanced safety analysis methodologies based on a multiscale and multiphysics approach;
- A comparison of the different safety analysis approaches.
3.5. Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication
- Organization of workshops;
- Dedicated training courses including massive open online course (MOOC).
- Creation of a User Group (UG);
- Creation of a technical Advisory Board (AB);
- Public project website;
- Regular project Newsletter issues;
- Publications of Press releases;
- Presentations in conferences and publications.
4. Status of the Project
4.1. The Experimental and Validation Program
- HWAT facility: Heat transfer for subcooled boiling and CHF; study of the appropriateness of two critical components (heated riser and pool type condenser) for future transient tests ;
- MOTEL: The first test series are focused on the helical coil steam generator behavior. The primary/secondary heat transfer is studied on different steady states with different core power levels ;
- COSMOS-H: The first test planned consists of a single heated tube made of Zircalloy-4 arranged in an annular gap with an outer glass tube . The heat transfer between the cladding and the coolant is measured for an increasing heat flux. It ranges from subcooled boiling until critical heat flux conditions.
4.2. Multiphysics Core Analysis
4.3. Multiphysics and Multiscale Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Analysis
- One-dimensional system thermal hydraulic codes (TRACE, ATHLET, RELAP5);
- Tridimensional system thermal hydraulic codes (TRACE, ATHLET-3D, RELAP-3D);
- Subchannel codes (SUBCHANFLOW, ARTHUR);
- CFD-codes (OpenFOAM, Fluent).
4.4. Multiscale Plant Analysis
4.5. Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|System TH-Codes||CFD-Codes||Core Simulator|
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Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.; Gabriel, S.; Suikkanen, H.; Telkkä, J.; Valtavirta, V.; Bencik, M.; Kliem, S.; Queral, C.; Farda, A.; Abéguilé, F.; Smith, P.; Uffelen, P.V.; Ammirabile, L.; Seidl, M.; Schneidesch, C.; Grishchenko, D.; Lestani, H. The H2020 McSAFER Project: Main Goals, Technical Work Program, and Status. Energies 2021, 14, 6348. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196348
Sanchez-Espinoza VH, Gabriel S, Suikkanen H, Telkkä J, Valtavirta V, Bencik M, Kliem S, Queral C, Farda A, Abéguilé F, Smith P, Uffelen PV, Ammirabile L, Seidl M, Schneidesch C, Grishchenko D, Lestani H. The H2020 McSAFER Project: Main Goals, Technical Work Program, and Status. Energies. 2021; 14(19):6348. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196348Chicago/Turabian Style
Sanchez-Espinoza, Victor Hugo, Stephan Gabriel, Heikki Suikkanen, Joonas Telkkä, Ville Valtavirta, Marek Bencik, Sören Kliem, Cesar Queral, Anthime Farda, Florian Abéguilé, Paul Smith, Paul Van Uffelen, Luca Ammirabile, Marcus Seidl, Christophe Schneidesch, Dmitry Grishchenko, and Hector Lestani. 2021. "The H2020 McSAFER Project: Main Goals, Technical Work Program, and Status" Energies 14, no. 19: 6348. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196348