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Article

The Highest Peaks of the Mountains: Comparing the Use of GNSS, LiDAR Point Clouds, DTMs, Databases, Maps, and Historical Sources

1
Department of Integrated Geodesy and Cartography, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
2
Joint International Tourism College, Hainan University—Arizona State University, Haikou 570228, China
3
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, SK-960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia
4
Department of Tourism and Regional Studies, Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Krakow, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
5
Center for Tourism Research, Wakayama University, Wakayama 640-8510, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benedetto Nastasi
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185731
Received: 30 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 September 2021 / Published: 11 September 2021
Advances in remote data acquisition techniques have contributed to the flooding of society with spatial data sets and information. Widely available spatial data sets, including digital terrain models (DTMs) from aerial laser scanning (ALS) data, are finding more and more new applications. The article analyses and compares the heights of the 14 highest peaks of the Polish Carpathians derived from different data sources. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) geodetic measurements were used as reference. The comparison primarily involves ALS data, and selected peaks’ GNSS measurements carried out with Xiaomi Mi 8 smartphones were also compared. Recorded raw smartphone GNSS measurements were used for calculations in post-processing mode. Other data sources were, among others, global and local databases and models and topographic maps (modern and old). The article presents an in-depth comparison of Polish and Slovak point clouds for two peaks. The results indicate the possible use of large-area laser scanning in determining the maximum heights of mountain peaks and the need to use geodetic GNSS measurements for selected peaks. For the Polish peak of Rysy, the incorrect classification of point clouds causes its height to be overestimated. The conclusions presented in the article can be used in the dissemination of knowledge and to improve positioning methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; LiDAR; DTM; data quality; mountains GNSS; LiDAR; DTM; data quality; mountains
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szombara, S.; Róg, M.; Kozioł, K.; Maciuk, K.; Skorupa, B.; Kudrys, J.; Lepeška, T.; Apollo, M. The Highest Peaks of the Mountains: Comparing the Use of GNSS, LiDAR Point Clouds, DTMs, Databases, Maps, and Historical Sources. Energies 2021, 14, 5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185731

AMA Style

Szombara S, Róg M, Kozioł K, Maciuk K, Skorupa B, Kudrys J, Lepeška T, Apollo M. The Highest Peaks of the Mountains: Comparing the Use of GNSS, LiDAR Point Clouds, DTMs, Databases, Maps, and Historical Sources. Energies. 2021; 14(18):5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185731

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szombara, Stanisław, Marta Róg, Krystian Kozioł, Kamil Maciuk, Bogdan Skorupa, Jacek Kudrys, Tomáš Lepeška, and Michal Apollo. 2021. "The Highest Peaks of the Mountains: Comparing the Use of GNSS, LiDAR Point Clouds, DTMs, Databases, Maps, and Historical Sources" Energies 14, no. 18: 5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185731

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