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Article

Unsteady Coupled Moisture and Heat Energy Transport through an Exterior Wall Covered with Vegetation

1
Itecons—Institute for Research and Technological Development in Construction, Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Rua Pedro Hispano s/ n., 3030-289 Coimbra, Portugal
2
ADAI—LAETA, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Pólo II, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Chemistry Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: João M. P. Q. Delgado
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4422; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154422
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 18 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Energy Management in Buildings)
A mathematical model that governs unsteady coupled moisture and heat energy transport through an exterior wall covered with vegetation is described. The unknown temperature and moisture content of the plants and canopy air are represented by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The transport of moisture and heat through the support structure, which includes insulation and soil layers, is defined in a series of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). After setting out the model, this article presents and discusses a set of numerical applications. First, a simplified system consisting of a brick wall covered with climbing vegetation is used to study the role of individual variables (e.g., wind speed, minimum stomatal internal leaf resistance, leaf area index, and short-wave extinction coefficient) on the hygrothermal behaviour of the green wall. Thereafter, more complex green wall systems comprising a bare concrete wall, mortar, cork-based insulation (ICB), soil and vegetation are used to evaluate the influence of the thermal insulation and substrate layers on the heat flux distribution over time at the interior surface of the wall, and on the evolution of the relative humidity, water content, and temperature throughout the cross section of the green wall. The numerical experiments proved that vegetation can effectively reduce exterior facade surface temperatures, heat flux through the building envelope and daily temperature fluctuations. View Full-Text
Keywords: green exterior walls; vertical greenery systems; coupled heat and moisture transport through the canopy; transient numerical simulation and modelling; boundary element method green exterior walls; vertical greenery systems; coupled heat and moisture transport through the canopy; transient numerical simulation and modelling; boundary element method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Škerget, L.; Tadeu, A.; Almeida, J. Unsteady Coupled Moisture and Heat Energy Transport through an Exterior Wall Covered with Vegetation. Energies 2021, 14, 4422. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154422

AMA Style

Škerget L, Tadeu A, Almeida J. Unsteady Coupled Moisture and Heat Energy Transport through an Exterior Wall Covered with Vegetation. Energies. 2021; 14(15):4422. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154422

Chicago/Turabian Style

Škerget, Leopold, António Tadeu, and João Almeida. 2021. "Unsteady Coupled Moisture and Heat Energy Transport through an Exterior Wall Covered with Vegetation" Energies 14, no. 15: 4422. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154422

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