The use of energy is a precondition for global economic and civilisational development. However, the growing demand for energy is depleting traditional energy resources and, most importantly, causing environmental pollution, mainly through the emission of greenhouse gases. As energy is necessary for the functioning of all sectors of the economy, such as industry, services, transport as well as households, these sectors are the largest contributors to energy consumption. Renewable energy sources are an alternative to generating energy from conventional fossil fuels. The main objective of this paper was to determine and compare the level, trends and variation in energy consumption by different economic sectors in countries of the European Union in 2010–2019. An analysis of the share of renewable energy consumption in different economic sectors was also carried out, as well as an assessment of the relationship of these indicators with the level of economic development of the countries and environmental impacts in the form of greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption. To explore the topics under discussion, a dozen of indicators have been considered in the article. The source of empirical data collected was the European Statistical Office. The researched period covered the years 2010–2019. The empirical data was statistically analysed. The article considers changes in the values of the studied indicators, differentiation between countries and the results of correlation and regression analysis. As shown by the data from 2010–2019, the countries of the European Union vary significantly in respect of primary and final energy consumption. The highest final energy consumption occurs in the transport sector, followed by slightly lower consumption in the industrial sector and households sector and the lowest but also significant consumption in the commercial and public services sector. Since 2010, total primary and final energy consumption has decreased in the EU (27) countries. Total energy consumption and consumption by individual sectors in modern economies of the EU (27) countries are reflected on the one hand in economic development and on the other—in exacerbation of adverse climate changes. Therefore, all EU Member States, aware of their energy consumption and their own contribution to environmental pollution, should take effective and sustainable corrective action in this area as soon as possible.
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