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Review

Technical and Commercial Challenges of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

1
College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
2
Department of Mechanics, Mathematics & Management, University of Bari, Piazza Umberto I, 1, 70121 Bari BA, Italy
3
School of Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
4
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2021, 14(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems)
This review critically evaluates the latest trends in fuel cell development for portable and stationary fuel cell applications and their integration into the automotive industry. Fast start-up, high efficiency, no toxic emissions into the atmosphere and good modularity are the key advantages of fuel cell applications. Despite the merits associated with fuel cells, the high cost of the technology remains a key factor impeding its widespread commercialization. Therefore, this review presents detailed information into the best operating conditions that yield maximum fuel cell performance. The paper recommends future research geared towards robust fuel cell geometry designs, as this determines the cell losses, and material characterization of the various cell components. When this is done properly, it will support a total reduction in the cost of the cell which in effect will reduce the total cost of the system. Despite the strides made by the fuel cell research community, there is a need for public sensitization as some people have reservations regarding the safety of the technology. This hurdle can be overcome if there is a well-documented risk assessment, which also needs to be considered in future research activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuel cell; optimization; efficiency; automotive industry; electric vehicles fuel cell; optimization; efficiency; automotive industry; electric vehicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alaswad, A.; Omran, A.; Sodre, J.R.; Wilberforce, T.; Pignatelli, G.; Dassisti, M.; Baroutaji, A.; Olabi, A.G. Technical and Commercial Challenges of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells. Energies 2021, 14, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144

AMA Style

Alaswad A, Omran A, Sodre JR, Wilberforce T, Pignatelli G, Dassisti M, Baroutaji A, Olabi AG. Technical and Commercial Challenges of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells. Energies. 2021; 14(1):144. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alaswad, Abed, Abdelnasir Omran, Jose R. Sodre, Tabbi Wilberforce, Gianmichelle Pignatelli, Michele Dassisti, Ahmad Baroutaji, and Abdul G. Olabi 2021. "Technical and Commercial Challenges of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells" Energies 14, no. 1: 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144

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