It is widely discussed that GDP growth has a vague impact on environmental pollution due to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels consumed in production, transportation, and power generation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between economic growth, fossil fuel consumption, mortality (from cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, and chronic respiratory disease (CRD), and environmental pollution since environmental pollution can be a reason for societal mortality rate increases. This study uses the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation technique for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) members for the period from 1993–2018. The major results revealed that the highest variability of mortality could be explained by CO2
variability. Regarding fossil fuel consumption, the estimation proved that this variable positively affects mortality from CVD, DM, cancer, and CRD. Additionally, any improvements in the human development index (HDI) have a negative effect on mortality increases from CVD, DM, cancer, and CRD in the CIS region. It is recommended that the CIS members implement different policies to improve energy transitions, indicating movement from fossil fuel energy sources to renewable sources. Moreover, we recommend the CIS members enhance various policies for easy access to electricity from green sources and increase the renewable supply through improved technologies, sustainable economic growth, and increase the use of green sources in daily social life.
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