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Open AccessArticle

Admixing Chaff with Straw Increased the Residues Collected without Compromising Machinery Efficiencies

1
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA)—Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing (CREA-IT), Via della Pascolare, 16 - 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) Italy
2
Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Ultunaallén 4, 756 51 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071766
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
The collection of residues from staple crop may contribute to meet EU regulations in renewable energy production without harming soil quality. At a global scale, chaff may have great potential to be used as a bioenergy source. However, chaff is not usually collected, and its loss can consist of up to one-fifth of the residual biomass harvestable. In the present work, a spreader able to manage the chaff (either spreading [SPR] on the soil aside to the straw swath or admixed [ADM] with the straw) at varying threshing conditions (with either 1 or 2 threshing rotors [1R and 2R, respectively] in the combine, which affects the mean length of the straw pieces). The fractions of the biomass available in field (grain, chaff, straw, and stubble) were measured, along with the performances of both grain harvesting and baling operations. Admixing chaff allowed for a slightly higher amount of straw fresh weight baled compared to SPR (+336 kg straw ha−1), but such result was not evident on a dry weight basis. At the one time, admixing chaff reduced the material capacity of the combine by 12.9%. Using 2R compared to 1R strongly reduced the length of the straw pieces, and increased the bale unit weight; however, it reduced the field efficiency of the grain harvesting operations by 11.9%. On average, the straw loss did not vary by the treatments applied and was 44% of the total residues available (computed excluding the stubble). In conclusion, admixing of chaff with straw is an option to increase the residues collected without compromising grain harvesting and straw baling efficiencies; in addition, it can reduce the energy needs for the bale logistics. According to the present data, improving the chaff collection can allow halving the loss of residues. However, further studies are needed to optimise both the chaff and the straw recoveries. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioresource; cereals; commodity; harvest index; staple foods; triticum; wheat bioresource; cereals; commodity; harvest index; staple foods; triticum; wheat
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3674125
    Description: Table S1. Data of the Grain, biomass and efficiencies, baling procedures, and grain harvesting procedures in the 2017 and 2019 (means ± standard deviations), Table S2. Data of the bale traits in the 2017 and 2019 (means ± standard error).
MDPI and ACS Style

Suardi, A.; Saia, S.; Stefanoni, W.; Gunnarsson, C.; Sundberg, M.; Pari, L. Admixing Chaff with Straw Increased the Residues Collected without Compromising Machinery Efficiencies. Energies 2020, 13, 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071766

AMA Style

Suardi A, Saia S, Stefanoni W, Gunnarsson C, Sundberg M, Pari L. Admixing Chaff with Straw Increased the Residues Collected without Compromising Machinery Efficiencies. Energies. 2020; 13(7):1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suardi, Alessandro; Saia, Sergio; Stefanoni, Walter; Gunnarsson, Carina; Sundberg, Martin; Pari, Luigi. 2020. "Admixing Chaff with Straw Increased the Residues Collected without Compromising Machinery Efficiencies" Energies 13, no. 7: 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071766

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