# Fault Ride Through Capability Improvement of DFIG Based Wind Farm Using Nonlinear Controller Based Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Modeling of DFIG

#### 2.1. Wind Power Modeling

#### 2.2. Modeling of DFIG Under Normal Condition

#### 2.3. Modeling of DFIG Under Fault

## 3. System Model

#### 3.1. RSC Controller

#### 3.2. GSC Controller

## 4. Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (BFC-NSFCL)

#### 4.1. Construction

#### 4.2. Working Principle

#### 4.2.1. Normal State

#### 4.2.2. Fault State

#### 4.3. Theoretical Design Considerations

#### 4.3.1. Normal State

#### 4.3.2. Fault State

#### 4.4. Proposed Nonlinear Controller for the BFC-NSFCL

## 5. Bridge-Type Fault Current Limiter (BFCL) and Series Dynamic Braking Resistor (SDBR)

#### 5.1. Construction of the BFCL

#### 5.1.1. Working Principle of the Bridge-Type Fault Current Limiter (BFCL)

#### 5.1.2. Control Scheme for the BFCL

#### 5.1.3. BFCL Design Consideration

#### 5.2. SDBR Construction

#### Working Principle of the SDBR

## 6. Simulation Results and Discussions

#### 6.1. Temporary Fault Responses

#### 6.1.1. Symmetrical Fault Responses

#### 6.1.2. Unsymmetrical Fault Responses

#### 6.1.3. Index-Based Analysis for Temporary Fault

#### 6.1.4. Steady State Analysis of Temporary Faults

#### 6.2. Permanent Fault Responses

#### 6.2.1. Index Based Analysis for Permanent Fault

#### 6.2.2. Steady State Analysis of Permanent Faults

## 7. Practical Feasibility and Cost Analysis

## 8. Conclusions

- Without any FCL, the system experiences substantial consequences during fault.
- The BFC-NSFCL performs superior to that of the BFCL and SDBR under different fault conditions such as subjecting the system to successful and unsuccessful reclosing of the CBs during symmetrical and unsymmetrical grid fault conditions.
- Finally, the nonlinear controller based BFC-NSFCL provides smoother and faster response compared to the BFC-NSFCL without any controller. It also provides swift convergence during steady situation as evident from the better overshoot and settling time parameters.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BFC-NSFCL | Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter |

BFCL | Bridge-Type Fault Current Limiter |

FC-SFCL | Flux Coupling Superconducting Fault Current Limiter |

FCR | Flux Coupling Reactor |

FRT | Fault Ride Through |

GSC | Grid Side Converter |

IGBT | Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor |

MFCL | Magnetic Fault Current Limiter |

MOV | Metal Oxide Varistor |

NSFCL | Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter |

PCC | Point of Common Coupling |

RSC | Rotor Side Converter |

SDBR | Series Dynamic Braking Resistor |

SFCL | Superconducting Fault Current Limiter |

SMES | Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage |

## Appendix A

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Rated power | 1.5 MVA |

Rated voltage | 0.69 KV |

DC-link nominal voltage | 1.2 KV |

DC-link capacitance value | 12,000 $\mathsf{\mu}$F |

Wind speed | 14 ms${}^{-1}$ |

Frequency | 50 Hz |

Resistance of stator | 0.005 pu |

Magnetizing inductance | 3.95279 pu |

Leakage inductance of stator | 0.09321 pu |

Inertia | 0.80 |

Leakage inductance of wound rotor | 0.09955 pu |

Wound rotor resistance | 0.0055 pu |

Friction factor | 0.01 |

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**Figure 5.**Per phase configuration of the proposed Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (BFC-NSFCL).

**Figure 6.**Per phase BFC-NSFCL configuration during normal period: (

**a**) For positive half cycle; (

**b**) For negative half cycle.

**Figure 9.**Equivalent circuit for theoretical analysis: (

**a**) During normal operation; (

**b**) During fault; (

**c**) Simplified equivalent circuit during fault.

**Figure 10.**Gate control of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) for nonlinear controller based BFC-NSFCL.

**Figure 11.**Influence of C on duty cycle and percentage indices: (

**a**) Relation between duty cycle and voltage deviation for different values of C; (

**b**) Percentage index of voltage deviation for different values of C.

**Figure 13.**Control scheme of the Series Dynamic Braking Resistor (SDBR), the BFCL and the BFC-NSFCL.

**Figure 15.**System responses for temporary 3LG fault: (

**a**) Voltage at the PCC; (

**b**) Active power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC); (

**c**) DC-link voltage; (

**d**) DFIG speed; (

**e**) Rotor current and (

**f**) Stator current.

**Figure 16.**System responses for temporary 1LG fault: (

**a**) Voltage at the PCC; (

**b**) Active power at the PCC; (

**c**) DC-link voltage; (

**d**) DFIG speed; (

**e**) Rotor current and (

**f**) Stator current.

${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{p}}$ | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathit{p}}$ | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}}$ | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathit{s}}$ | M | K |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1.56 $\mathsf{\Omega}$ | 250 mH | 0.21 $\mathsf{\Omega}$ | 350 mH | 292.84 mH | 0.99 |

${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{sh}}$ | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathit{sh}}$ | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{dc}}$ | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathit{dc}}$ |
---|---|---|---|

20 $\mathsf{\Omega}$ | 250 mH | 0.003 $\mathsf{\Omega}$ | 1 mH |

Index Parameters (%) | Values of Indices | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

No FCL | SDBR | BFCL | BFC-NSFCL | Nonlinear Controller Based BFC-NSFCL | |

vlt(pu.s) | 10.145 | 1.614 | 1.241 | 0.993 | 0.681 |

pow(pu.s) | 27.327 | 12.281 | 7.151 | 6.165 | 6.112 |

dclink(pu.s) | 0.112 | 0.037 | 0.034 | 0.032 | 0.028 |

spd(pu.s) | 0.869 | 0.442 | 0.101 | 0.073 | 0.050 |

rtr(pu.s) | 46.838 | 4.739 | 2.135 | 2.092 | 2.065 |

str(pu.s) | 21.706 | 18.148 | 2.655 | 2.604 | 2.386 |

Index Parameters (%) | Values of Indices | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

No FCL | SDBR | BFCL | BFC-NSFCL | Nonlinear Controller Based BFC-NSFCL | |

vlt(pu.s) | 3.982 | 1.314 | 0.670 | 0.319 | 0.212 |

pow(pu.s) | 11.808 | 8.483 | 3.057 | 2.566 | 2.106 |

dclink(pu.s) | 0.101 | 0.036 | 0.031 | 0.028 | 0.027 |

spd(pu.s) | 0.291 | 0.086 | 0.058 | 0.047 | 0.034 |

rtr(pu.s) | 34.220 | 3.245 | 1.754 | 1.685 | 1.583 |

str(pu.s) | 18.462 | 6.977 | 2.006 | 1.862 | 1.751 |

Percentage Overshoot | Settling Time (s) | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

FCLs | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current |

No FCL | 44.884 | 0.133 | 2.158 | 95.150 | 79.424 | 12.838 | ∞ | 16.915 | 4.754 | 1.744 |

SDBR | 43.531 | 0.051 | 0.967 | 76.859 | 55.683 | 0.645 | 2.562 | 5.334 | 0.581 | 0.935 |

BFCL | 8.263 | 0.048 | 0.210 | 36.387 | 6.798 | 0.178 | 1.079 | 0.134 | 0.572 | 0.585 |

BFC-NSFCL | 6.063 | 0.043 | 0.065 | 27.279 | 2.411 | 0.111 | 0.613 | 0.051 | 0.531 | 0.542 |

Nonlinear controller | ||||||||||

based BFC-NSFCL | 5.483 | 0.040 | 0.010 | 25.619 | 1.961 | 0.105 | 0.534 | 0.046 | 0.339 | 0.253 |

Percentage Overshoot | Settling Time (s) | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

FCLs | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current |

No FCL | 53.405 | 0.132 | 2.049 | 93.685 | 71.016 | 11.252 | 12.984 | 15.192 | 2.975 | 0.974 |

SDBR | 34.248 | 0.049 | 0.474 | 83.028 | 51.382 | 0.506 | 4.168 | 0.269 | 0.395 | 0.751 |

BFCL | 10.029 | 0.048 | 0.032 | 49.288 | 9.374 | 0.456 | 0.934 | 0.066 | 0.273 | 0.418 |

BFC-NSFCL | 9.492 | 0.045 | 0.030 | 45.237 | 8.818 | 0.073 | 0.554 | 0.045 | 0.210 | 0.386 |

Nonlinear controller | ||||||||||

based BFC-NSFCL | 5.443 | 0.044 | 0.029 | 36.504 | 8.462 | 0.051 | 0.498 | 0.033 | 0.183 | 0.242 |

Index Parameters (%) | Values of Indices | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

No FCL | SDBR | BFCL | BFC-NSFCL | Nonlinear Controller Based BFC-NSFCL | |

vlt(pu.s) | 20.266 | 3.226 | 2.491 | 1.993 | 1.294 |

pow(pu.s) | 65.942 | 32.846 | 22.871 | 19.397 | 16.745 |

dclink(pu.s) | 0.882 | 0.175 | 0.146 | 0.111 | 0.099 |

spd(pu.s) | 14.675 | 4.437 | 3.148 | 3.088 | 2.966 |

rtr(pu.s) | 108.096 | 23.375 | 15.094 | 14.666 | 13.921 |

str(pu.s) | 55.758 | 42.689 | 23.925 | 21.476 | 18.112 |

Index Parameters (%) | Values of Indices | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

No FCL | SDBR | BFCL | BFC-NSFCL | Nonlinear Controller Based BFC-NSFCL | |

vlt(pu.s) | 7.955 | 2.534 | 1.296 | 0.633 | 0.459 |

pow(pu.s) | 25.895 | 18.848 | 7.985 | 5.459 | 5.284 |

dclink(pu.s) | 0.207 | 0.104 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.053 |

spd(pu.s) | 10.848 | 3.489 | 1.486 | 1.349 | 1.255 |

rtr(pu.s) | 75.949 | 15.895 | 7.386 | 6.386 | 5.898 |

str(pu.s) | 38.848 | 20.846 | 8.488 | 7.885 | 7.579 |

Overshoot | Settling Time | |||||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

FCLs | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | ||||||||||

1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | |

No FCL | 49.693 | 46.460 | 0.099 | 0.299 | 2.201 | 1.534 | 94.592 | 94.607 | 79.059 | 77.400 | N/A | 14.146 | N/A | ∞ | N/A | 21.264 | N/A | 4.980 | N/A | 1.989 |

SDBR | 48.571 | 42.857 | 0.065 | 0.082 | 1.381 | 1.397 | 77.619 | 76.766 | 56.699 | 56.410 | 0.649 | 0.827 | N/A | 2.747 | N/A | 6.267 | 0.622 | 0.808 | N/A | 0.988 |

BFCL | 17.279 | 17.883 | 0.041 | 0.038 | 1.194 | 1.291 | 33.030 | 36.012 | 9.285 | 13.354 | 0.205 | 0.319 | N/A | 1.098 | 1.057 | 0.238 | 0.597 | 0.741 | 0.718 | 0.774 |

BFC-NSFCL | 16.123 | 16.589 | 0.027 | 0.030 | 0.908 | 1.153 | 31.544 | 31.917 | 6.491 | 10.901 | 0.158 | 0.163 | 0.636 | 0.737 | 0.102 | 0.111 | 0.564 | 0.660 | 0.603 | 0.619 |

Nonlinear controller | ||||||||||||||||||||

based BFC-NSFCL | 15.174 | 15.572 | 0.015 | 0.017 | 0.249 | 0.332 | 23.219 | 26.275 | 3.519 | 5.869 | 0.105 | 0.151 | 0.619 | 0.668 | 0.032 | 0.036 | 0.314 | 0.321 | 0.242 | 0.250 |

Overshoot | Settling Time | |||||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

FCLs | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | Active Power | DC-Link Voltage | DFIG Speed | Rotor Current | Stator Current | ||||||||||

1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | 1st sag | 2nd sag | |

No FCL | 56.710 | 52.731 | 0.100 | 0.299 | 1.961 | 3.459 | 92.954 | 92.928 | 70.175 | 69.986 | N/A | 11.998 | N/A | ∞ | N/A | 19.247 | N/A | 4.906 | N/A | 1.906 |

SDBR | 36.215 | 28.571 | 0.070 | 0.090 | 1.631 | 1.647 | 66.216 | 66.799 | 42.098 | 37.362 | 0.513 | 0.687 | N/A | 2.747 | N/A | 5.677 | 0.583 | 0.717 | N/A | 1.291 |

BFCL | 17.582 | 18.404 | 0.020 | 0.040 | 0.753 | 0.835 | 45.887 | 46.467 | 9.188 | 14.055 | 0.474 | 0.196 | N/A | 1.118 | 0.129 | 0.212 | 0.425 | 0.614 | 0.548 | 0.649 |

BFC-NSFCL | 16.974 | 17.355 | 0.015 | 0.017 | 0.374 | 0.514 | 39.173 | 41.589 | 2.857 | 3.519 | 0.085 | 0.101 | 0.566 | 0.922 | 0.071 | 0.185 | 0.334 | 0.549 | 0.462 | 0.532 |

Nonlinear controller | ||||||||||||||||||||

based BFC-NSFCL | 16.512 | 16.821 | 0.010 | 0.010 | 0.125 | 0.200 | 38.575 | 40.191 | 1.392 | 2.746 | 0.054 | 0.058 | 0.518 | 0.884 | 0.065 | 0.114 | 0.297 | 0.509 | 0.339 | 0.421 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Islam, M.R.; Huda, M.N.; Hasan, J.; Sadi, M.A.H.; AbuHussein, A.; Roy, T.K.; Mahmud, M.A.
Fault Ride Through Capability Improvement of DFIG Based Wind Farm Using Nonlinear Controller Based Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 1696.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071696

**AMA Style**

Islam MR, Huda MN, Hasan J, Sadi MAH, AbuHussein A, Roy TK, Mahmud MA.
Fault Ride Through Capability Improvement of DFIG Based Wind Farm Using Nonlinear Controller Based Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter. *Energies*. 2020; 13(7):1696.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071696

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Islam, Md. Rashidul, Md. Najmul Huda, Jakir Hasan, Mohammad Ashraf Hossain Sadi, Ahmed AbuHussein, Tushar Kanti Roy, and Md. Apel Mahmud.
2020. "Fault Ride Through Capability Improvement of DFIG Based Wind Farm Using Nonlinear Controller Based Bridge-Type Flux Coupling Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter" *Energies* 13, no. 7: 1696.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071696