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Article

A Methodology for Long-Term Model Predictive Control of Hybrid Geothermal Systems: The Shadow-Cost Formulation

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2
EnergyVille, Thor Park 8310, 3600 Genk, Belgium
3
École Polytechnique de Montréal, Département de Génie Mécanique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C3A7, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236203
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ground Heat Exchangers and Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps)
Model Predictive Control (MPC) predictive’s nature makes it attractive for controlling high-capacity structures such as thermally activated building systems (TABS). Using weather predictions in the order of days, the system is able to react in advance to changes in the building heating and cooling needs. However, this prediction horizon window may be sub-optimal when hybrid geothermal systems are used, since the ground dynamics are in the order of months and even years. This paper proposes a methodology that includes a shadow-cost in the objective function to take into account the long-term effects that appear in the borefield. The shadow-cost is computed for a given long-term horizon that is discretized over time using predictions of the building heating and cooling needs. The methodology is applied to a case with only heating and active regeneration of the ground thermal balance. Results show that the formulation with the shadow cost is able to optimally use the active regeneration, reducing the overall operational costs at the expenses of an increased computational time. The effects of the shadow cost long-term horizon and the predictions accuracy are also investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid geothermal systems; model predictive control; control-oriented modeling; long-term predictions; shadow cost hybrid geothermal systems; model predictive control; control-oriented modeling; long-term predictions; shadow cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cupeiro Figueroa, I.; Cimmino, M.; Helsen, L. A Methodology for Long-Term Model Predictive Control of Hybrid Geothermal Systems: The Shadow-Cost Formulation. Energies 2020, 13, 6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236203

AMA Style

Cupeiro Figueroa I, Cimmino M, Helsen L. A Methodology for Long-Term Model Predictive Control of Hybrid Geothermal Systems: The Shadow-Cost Formulation. Energies. 2020; 13(23):6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236203

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cupeiro Figueroa, Iago, Massimo Cimmino, and Lieve Helsen. 2020. "A Methodology for Long-Term Model Predictive Control of Hybrid Geothermal Systems: The Shadow-Cost Formulation" Energies 13, no. 23: 6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236203

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